XI

Numerous experiments have been made with all kinds of wood, even with hard oak. In the preparation of oak railway ties it was discovered that pieces subjected to a temperature of 212° F. in a bath of heavy tar oil for 4 hours lost from 6 to 7 per cent of their weight, represented by water and albuminous substances, and that they absorbed in heavy oil and zinc chloride enough to represent an increase of from 2 to 3 per cent on their natural original weight. The oak wood in question had been cut for more than a year and was of a density of 1.04 to 1.07.

This system offers the advantage of allowing the absorption of antiseptic liquids without any deformation of the constituent elements of the wood, the more as the operation is performed altogether in open vessels. Another advantage is the greater resistance of the wood to warping and bending, and to the extraction of metallic pieces, such as nails, cramp irons, etc.

XII

In the Kyanizing process seasoned timber is soaked in a solution of bichloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate) which coagulates the albumen. The solution is very poisonous and corrodes iron and steel, hence is unsuited for structural purposes in which metallic fastenings are used. The process is effective, but dangerous to the health of the workers employed.

XIII

The Wellhouse process also uses zinc chloride, but adds a small percentage of glue. After the timber has been treated under pressure the zinc chloride solution is drawn off and one of tannin is substituted. The tannin combines with the glue and forms an insoluble substance that effectually seals the pores.

XIV

The Allardyce process makes use of zinc chloride and dead oil of tar, the latter being applied last, and the manner of application being essentially the same for both as explained in the other processes.

XV

The timber is boiled in a solution of copper, iron, and aluminum sulphate, to which a small quantity of kainit is added.

XVI

In the creo - rosinate process the timber is first subjected to a steaming process at 200° F. to evaporate the moisture in the cells; the temperature is then gradually increased to 320° F. and a pressure of 80 pounds per square inch. The pressure is slowly reduced to 26 inches vacuum, and then a solution of dead oil of tar, melted rosin, and formaldehyde is injected. After this process the timber is placed in another cylinder where a solution of milk of lime is applied at a temperature of 150° F. and a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch.