This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Kerosene has long been recognized as a most efficient insecticide, but its irritating action, as well as the very considerable cost involved, has prevented the use of the pure oil as a local application in the various parasitic skin diseases of animals.
In order to overcome these objections various expedients have been resorted to, all of which have for their object the dilution or emulsification of the kerosene. Probably the best known and most generally employed method for accomplishing this result is that which is based upon the use of soap as an emulsifying agent. The formula which is used almost universally for making the kerosene soap emulsion is as follows:
Kerosene........... 2 gallons
Water.............. 1 gallon
Hard soap.......... 0.5 pound
The soap is dissolved in the water with the aid of heat, and while this solution is still hot the kerosene is added and the whole agitated vigorously. The smooth white mixture which is obtained in this way is diluted before use with sufficient water to make a total volume of 20 gallons, and is usually applied to the skin of animals or to trees or other plants by means of a spray pump. This method of application is used because the diluted emulsion separates quite rapidly, and some mechanical device, such as a self-mixing spray pump, is required to keep the oil in suspension.
It will be readily understood that this emulsion would not be well adapted either for use as a dip or for application by hand, for in the one case the oil, which rapidly rises to the surface, would adhere to the animals when they emerged from the dipping tank and the irritating effect would be scarcely less than that produced by the plain oil, and in the second case the same separation of the kerosene would take place and necessarily result in an uneven distribution of the oil on the bodies of the animals which were being treated.
Within recent years it has been found that a certain crude petroleum from the Beaumont oil fields is quite effective for destroying the Texas fever cattle ticks. This crude petroleum contains from 40 to 50 per cent of oils boiling below 300° C. (572° F.), and from 1 to 1.5 per cent of sulphur. After a number of trials of different combinations of crude oil, soap, and water, the following formula was decided upon as the one best suited to the uses in view:
Crude petroleum..... 2 gallons
Water.............. 0.5 gallon
Hard soap.......... 0.5 pound
Dissolve the soap in the water with the aid of heat; to this solution add the crude petroleum, mix with a spray pump or shake vigorously, and dilute with the desired amount of water. Soft water should, of course, be used. Various forms of hard and soft soaps have been tried, but soap with an amount of free alkali equivalent to 0.9 per cent of sodium hydroxide gives the best emulsion. All the ordinary laundry soaps are quite satisfactory, but toilet soaps in the main are not suitable.
An emulsion of crude petroleum made according to this modified formula remains fluid and can be easily poured; it will stand indefinitely without any tendency toward a separation of the oil and water and can be diluted in any proportion with cold soft water. After sufficient dilution to produce a 10 per cent emulsion, a number of hours are required for all the oil to rise to the surface, but if the mixture is agitated occasionally, no separation takes place. After long standing the oil separates in the form of a creamlike layer which is easily mixed with the water again by stirring. It is therefore evident that for producing an emulsion which will hold the oil in suspension after dilution, the modified formula meets the desired requirements.
In preparing this emulsion for use in the field, a large spray pump capable of mixing 25 gallons may be used with perfect success.
In using the formula herewith given, it should be borne in mind that it is recommended especially for the crude petroleum obtained from the Beaumont oil fields, the composition of which has already been given. As crude petroleums from different sources vary greatly in their composition, it is impracticable to give a formula that can be used with all crude oils. Nevertheless, crude petroleum from other sources than the Beaumont wells may be emulsified by modifying the formula given above. In order to determine what modification of this formula is necessary for the emulsification of a given oil, the following method may be used:
Dissolve 0.5 pound of soap in 0.5 gallon of hot water; to 1 measure of this soap solution add 4 measures of the crude petroleum to be tested and shake well in a stoppered bottle or flask for several minutes.
If, after dilution, there is a separation of a layer of pure oil within half an hour the emulsion is imperfect, and a modification of the formula will be required. To accomplish this the proportion of oil should be varied until a good result is obtained.