represents a group of distinct operations. Logging is felling and roughly trimming timber and transporting it, preferably by water but, if necessary, by rail, to its destination. The great rivers of the United States afford unequalled opportunities for logging. Whenever possible, the logs are fastened in huge rafts and navigated down stream as the current and volume of the river may permit. Then comes the sawmill branch of lumbering. The logs are sawn into beams and planks, but not carefully trimmed. The planingmill stage is that in which the beams and boards are trimmed and manufactured to standard dimensions and uses. In lumbering the principal difficulty always is transportation. At times in the winter the roads are flooded and frozen for the readier transportation of logs. In connection with lumbering arises the national problem of how to conserve the forests. Great as are the forests of America, they cannot supply the present enormous demand. Many forests have been totally cleared. In 1907, according to the bureau of the census and the forest-service, over 40,000,-000,000 feet were cut. The actual cut is believed to have been five per cent, larger or 2,000,000,000 feet more. Efforts are made by the United States Bureau of Forestry to conserve great forest-parks and to plant young trees. Treeplanting by school children and by individual citizens is and ought to be encouraged. See Forests.

Lun'dy's Lane, a battle fought in Canada near Niagara Falls, during the War of 1812, between the British and Americans July 25, 1814. Early in the day General Brown, the American commander, learned that a British force under General Drum-mond had crossed the Niagara at Queenston to attack Fort Schlosser. To divert the British from this purpose General Winfield Scott with 1,500 men was ordered to make a demonstration upon Queenston. About sunset Scott came upon a force under General Riall posted on an eminence near Lundy's Lane. A severe fight ensued, which continued until midnight. The British were driven from their strong position, and General Riall and his staff were taken prisoners. By a fierce countercharge, however, the British recaptured the position and the guns which had been taken. The Americans withdrew toward Chippewa. General Brown arrived upon the field and took command in person sometime after sunset. Both he and General Scott were severely wounded during the engagement. The British loss was 878; that of the Americans 743.

Lung'fishes. See Mudfishes.

Lungs. See Respiration, Organ of.

Luray' Cave, a cavern near Luray, Va., remarkable not so much for size as for the great number and extraordinary shape of its stalactites. Some of these columns exceed

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50 feet in length. Many are hollow, giving out bell-like notes when struck ; and the colors range from waxy-white to yellow, brown or rosy-red. The cavern is lit with electric light, and attracts thousands of visitors every year.

Lute, a musical instrument not now used, introduced into Europe by the Arabians, from whose language it derives its name. The Arabian lute was made from 21 pieces of maplewood ; and the strings, eight in number, were tuned in pairs. In order to accommodate the lute to the chromatic scale, the number of strings was gradually increased to 24. The lute is represented on the sculptures of the Egyptian tombs. So its antiquity is great. Lu'ther, Martin, chief of the great Protestant Reformation, was born at Eisleben, Germany, Nov. 10, 1483. His early education was obtained at Madge-burg and Eisenach, and at the latter place, by the sweetness of his singing, he attracted the notice of Frau Cotta.who provided him with a comfortable home during his stay. In 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt to qualify himself for the law, but while here he became the subject of profound religious impressions and withdrew (1505) into the Augustinian convent, where he spent three years, giving his time and attention to religious themes and his religious experience. In 1509 he became a bachelor of theology and began to preach and lecture. Being sent on a mission to Rome in 1510, while climbing on his knees the Scala Santa, the words "the just shall live by faith" flashed upon his soul and raised him to his feet. Luther's career as a reformer may be said to have commenced from that date, and soon after his return he began to denounce the prevailing system of indulgences and became involved (1517) in his famous controversy with Tetzel. Cardinal Cajetan was sent as the pope's legate to Luther, but could not induce him to retract his utterances. In 1521 Luther was summoned before the diet at Worms. His friends sought to persuade him not to obey, but he declared he would enter Worms if there were as many devils in it as there are tiles on the roofs. Before the diet he stood unmovable by the appeals and threats. On his return, being placed under the ban of the empire, he was seized at the instance of his friend, the elector of Saxony, and safely placed in the old castle of the Wartburg. In 1525 Luther married Katharina von Bora, an event which not only strengthened the Reformation, but contributed largely to his own happiness and