LYDIA                                                        «26                                             LYNDHURST

the state wisely during his nephew's infancy. Then he traveled over Crete, Ionia and Egypt. Finding his country in complete anarchy and disorder when he returned, he made a new division of property and a complete change in the laws and constitution. Having done this, he prepared to set out on another journey. Having first bound the citizens by oath not to change any of his laws until he came back, he left the city, never to return. His memory was honored, as that of a god, with a temple and yearly sacrifices. Lyd'ia, anciently a country of A sia Minor, bounded on the north by Mysia, on the east by Phrygia, on the south by Caria and on the west by Ionia. The Lydians, shut out from the Ęgean Sea by the Ionian Greeks, developed great commercial activity inland. They were believed to have been the inventors of coined money and of dice and other games. King Gyges, who reigned about 700 B. C, founded a powerful Lydian empire, which attained its highest splendor under his descendant, Crcesus, who was captured by Cyrus the Persian in 546 B. C. Sardis became the western capital of the Persian empire until its overthrow. Lydia subsequently was subject to Athens, Macedonia and Rome.

Ly'ell, Sir Charles, an eminent Scotch geologist, was born in Forfarshire, on Nov. 14, 1797. While pursuing his studies at Exeter College, Oxford, he attended the lectures of Buck-land, and thus acquired a taste for the sciences to which his life was devoted. He graduated        in

1810, and soon jafterward entered the legal profession; but, being possessed of ample means, he made scientific tours over Europe, publishing the results in Transactions of the Geological Society and elsewhere. Ly-ell's great work, The Principles of Geology, may be ranked, next after Darwin's Origin of Species, among the books which have exercised the greatest influence on the scientific thought of our era. A further important work from his pen was one on The Antiquity of Man. Lyell was knighted in 1848, and created a baronet in 1864. He died at London, Feb. 22, 1875, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Lymph [limf] (Greek for water), the colorless and almost transparent fluid found in the lymphatic vessels of the body. The lymph is conveyed by larger and larger vessels to

the venous system, on entering which it mingles with the blood. The lymph of the left side of the trunk, of both legs and of the left arm passes into the blood through the thoracic duct; while the lymph of the right side of the head, neck, trunk and right arm enters the circulation at the junction of the axillary and jugular veins. The lymph arises from the fluid part of the blood which exudes from the capillaries, bathes the cells ancftissues of the body, and then, after supplying them with food and receiving their excretions, passes on once more to enter the circulation as indicated. The quantity of lymph discharged daily into the venous system of a man weighing 150 pounds is about six pounds, or four per cent, of his weight.

Lynch'burg, Va., an old and picturesque city of central Virginia, on James River and the Chesapeake and Ohio, Richmond and Danville and Norfolk and Western railroads. It is situated no miles west of Richmond, and commands a fine view of the Blue Ridge. It is the trade and distributing center for a wide region watered by the James. Here is Randolph-Macon College- (Methodist), an institution for the education of women. The water-power from the river aids its tobacco, cotton and flour mills, with iron foundries and" railway machine shops. Population 29,494.

Lynch-Law is the execution of offenders without process of law and by persons other than officers of the law. The origin of the term is involved in doubt. One account refers the term to one Lynch, who was sent from England to America in 1687 to suppress piracy. But it can be traced to a much earlier date. In 1493, "James Lynch was mayor of Galway, and the council-books of that city are said to contain a minute that James Lynch, mayor of Galway, hanged his own son out of the window for defrauding and killing strangers, without martial or common law, to show a good example to posterity."

Lynd'hurst, John Singleton Copley, an English jurist, the son of Copley the painter, was born at Boston, Mass., May 21, 1772. When he was three, his father moved to London, and the son, after receiving a private education at Chiswick, in 1790 entered Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1804 he was admitted to the bar; and after several years of hard and patient labor his success was assured. In 1817 he obtained the acquittal of Thistlewood and Dr. Watson on their trial for high treason; for the next state prosecution, four months later, his services were secured by the government; and In 1818 he entered parliament as a Tory representative. Henceforward his promotion was rapid, and numerous high positions were given to him. In 1827 he was created Baron Lyndhurst, and in 1841 he became lord chancellor for the third time, holding the great seal till the defeat of the Peel government in 1846, after which he took but little part in politics. He

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SIR CHARLES LYELL