M (ĕm), the thirteenth letter, is a vocal consonant. It is made with the lips and nasal passages closed, and is therefore classed as a labionasal, as in me, him, tame. It also is a liquid and even a semivowel. Before n in the same syllable it is silent, as in mnemonics. The Romans used it as a numeral (1,000) as well as a letter. M also means em, a printer's term.

Mab, a fairy celebrated by Shakespeare, Ben Jonson and other poets. She usually is called Queen Mab, but this does not mean that she is queen of the fairies. That place belongs to Titania, the wife of Oberon. For a description of Queen Mab's mischievous ways, telling how she comes "athwart men's noses as they lie asleep" see Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. In Shelley's Queen Mab she is made queen of the fairies and given a much wider realm to reign over, — the deeds and thoughts of men.

Ma'bie, Hamilton Wright, an American writer, the possessor of a good literary style and a lecturer and editor of repute, was born in New York in 1846. He is a graduate of Williams College and Columbia Law School (1869). He became associate-editor of 7~he Outlook. His works show an appreciation of the fitting and beautiful and a love of interpretative criticism, which have won a host of sympathetic readers. Among his works may be mentioned Norse Stories from the Eddas, Nature in New England, Short Studies in Literature, Essays in Literary Interpretation, Nature and Culture, Books and Culture, Work and Culture, The Life of the Spirit and William Shakespeare. Macad'am, John Loudon, inventor of the system of roadmaking known as macadamizing, was born at Ayr, Scotland, Sept. 21, 1756. In 1801 he began to make experiments in roidbuilding, a work to which his future life was devoted. His system was adopted on nearly all the public roads of England, and was introduced into France and other countries. His principles may be briefly stated: It is not necessary to lay a foundation of large stones, as it is a matter of indifference whether the foundation be hard or soft. The material must consist of broken stones, one or two ounces in weight, scattered to a depth of from six to ten inches and pressed together as closely as possible. The road is to have a slight fall from the middle to the sides, and ditches are to be dug on each side of sufficient

depth to drain it. Macadam was offered the honor of knighthood some time before his death, but declined it. He died on Nov. 26, 1836.

McAir Mission, the largest Protestant mission in France, was founded in 1871 by the Rev. R. W. McAU and his wife. It embraces more than one hundred stations, nearly all in Paris, and is supported by Protestants of all denominations in England and America. Such has been the progress of this mission that in the 12 th year after its foundation it held 15,000 meetings, attended by nearly 1,000,000 persons, and distributed more than 500,000 Bibles and tracts.

Macaroni (mk--rō'n), a peculiar paste or dough manufactured from wheat-flour into tubes, ribbons or threads. It is an Italian invention, and, although the process is very simple, the manufacture is almost wholly limited to Italy and France, probably because the wheat raised in those countries contains so large a proportion of gluten. Macaroni is used for soups, and is exported to all parts of the world.

MacAr'thur, Arthur, American soldier, lieutenant-general in the regular army, was born in Massachusetts, but served during the Civil War in the western army; entering the service as a lieutenant in the 24th Wisconsin Infantry, Aug. 4, 1862, and rising to a brevet colonelcy, given for conspicuous bravery at the successive engagements of Perryville, Stone River and Missionary Ridge. For gallantry in the latter engagement he was voted a medal by Congress. He served throughout the Atlanta campaign and was mustered out only after the final review of the volunteer forces, June 10, 1865. On Feb. 23, 1866, he was commissioned first lieutenant in the regular army and assigned to the 17th Infantry; but a few months later he was promoted to a captaincy and transferred to the 36th Infantry. At the outbreak of the war with Spain he was serving in the office of the adjutant-general with rank of lieutenant-colonel. On May 27, 1898, he was appointed brigadier-general of United States Volunteers, and promoted to major-general commanding the 2d division of the 8th army corps soon after, and assigned to duty in Havana. In 1899 he was sent to the Philippines where he rendered conspicuous service, was made brigadier-general in the regular army, and, on the retirement of General