MACCABEES OF THE WORLD

1131

McCLELLAN

the desecration of the temple. He was pursued by the Syrians. When one of their captains tried to bribe him to abandon the Jewish faith, he answered by slaying with his own hand the first Jewish renegade who approached the altar of idolatry. This bold act was the signal for a general outbreak. The five sons of Mattathias, with a few faithful followers, rose against the national foe, destroyed all traces of heathen worship, and then fled into the wilderness of Juda. Not long after, they entered the adjacent cities and villages, circumcising the children and restoring the ancient religion. At the death of Mattathias, 166 B. C, his son Judas took command of the patriots, repulsed the enemy at Mizpah and other places, reconquered Jerusalem, purified the temple and restored the worship of Jehovah. Having further concluded an alliance with the Romans, he fell in battle with Bacchides. Judas was succeeded by his brother Jonathan, who also acquired the dignity of high-priest. Jonathan was treacherously murdered at Ptolemais, 141 B. C., and was succeeded by his brother Simon, the second of the five sons of Mattathias. The reign of Simon marked a new era in Jewish history. His power was almost absolute, but it was exercised with great moderation and ' ' Judah prospered as of old." The reign of the Maccabean family continued until the time of Herod the Great. See History of Israel by Ewald and History of the Jews by Milman.

Mac'cabees of the World, Knights of the, a beneficiary society, was organized at London, Canada, in 1878, and reorganized at Port Huron in 1883. It now has 300,000 members and 5,000 subordinate Tents, or local bodies, in 55 jurisdictions. The Supreme Tent is at Port Huron, Michigan. The accumulated funds of the order amount to $6,500,000, invested in United States and municipal bonds. It furnishes benefits in case of disability and death, and has paid over $30,000,000 in benefits. Its rates are based on the national fraternal congress' table of mortality, and it is incorporated under the laws of Michigan. McCarthy (m-kar'th), Justin, Irish historian and novelist, was born at Cork, Nov. 22, 1830. He joined the staff of the Northern Times, Liverpool, in 1853, and in 1864 became chief editor of the London Morning Star. He resigned this position in 1864, and devoted the next three years to a tour through the United States. He enter ed the

Description images/pp0008 1

GENERAL McCLELLAN

house of commons in 1879 as member for Longford, a Liberal, but his literary works have extended his name much further than his political triumphs. Among his best-known novels are Paul Massie, The Water-dale Neighbors, My Enemy's Daughter, Donna Quixote, Maid of Athens, Red Diamonds and A Fair Saxon. His historical writings, on which his fame mostly depends, are History of Our Own Times, History of the Four Georges, Life of Peel, Life of Leo XIII, Modern England and The Story of Mr. Gladstone's Life.

McClel'lan, Qeorge Brinton, an American general, was born at Philadelphia, Dec. 3, 1826. He graduated at West Point in 1846, one of his classmates being the renowned "Stonewall" Jackson. He served as an engineer during the Mexican War, winning a brevet - captaincy. He continued to serve as an officer in the regular army until 1857, when he resigned to engage in railroad business. When the Civil War broke out, Governor Dennison of Ohio appointed him major-general of Ohio volunteers, and in May he was appointed major-general of United States troops by President Lincoln. He was immedtately sent into West Virginia, and conducted a short and successful campaign against the Confederates. On account of this signal success McClellan was soon called to Washington to reorganize the Army of the Potomac. On the retirement of General Winfield Scott in November McClellan was made commander-in-chief. As an organizer he showed marked ability and efficiency; but he sorely tried the patience of the administration and the people by the slowness of his movements — rather than by his failure to move at all. At length in April, 1862, under the positive orders of President Lincoln he entered on his disastrous Peninsular campaign. He advanced within a few miles of Richmond, but after fighting what are known as the "Seven Days' battles" (June 25 to July 1) he was driven back and was directed to abandon the peninsula. A large part of his army was ordered to re-enforce General Pope's troops; but soon after the second battle of Bull Run, McClellan, in command of his army of the Potomac, marching northward, met the forces of General Lee at Antietam, Maryland, where there occurred one of the bloodiest battles of the war; but whatever advantage McClellan gained he

Description images/pp0008 2

JUSTIN MCCARTHY