MADEIRA

114a

MADRAS

1420; they were occupied by the British in 1801 and from 1807 to 1814.

Madei'ra, a river of South America and the largest tributary of the Amazon, is formed by the junction of the Mamoré and Guaporè in Bolivia, the Beni joining about 100 miles lower down. The river then flows northeast, its drainage-basin embracing nearly 500,000 square miles. From its mouth to its first falls the distance is nearly 600 miles; and above this point navigation is rendered impossible by a series of falls and cataracts extending over 200 miles. The length of the river, including its tributaries, is about 2,000 miles. See Bolivia.

Mad'ison, a city of Indiana, the capital of Jefferson County, is situated on the right bank of the Ohio, 90 miles below Cincinnati and 50 above Louisville, with which two cities it has daily communication by steamer. Population 7,835.

Madison, the capital of Wisconsin, is located in Dane County, on an isthmus between Lakes Monona and Mendota, 80 miles west of Milwaukee and at the junction of several railroads. The capitol, university and other public buildings stand on hills, commanding extensive views of beautiful scenery. The university is in a 13-acre park, is open to both sexes and has a faculty of 470 members and 5,533 students. It has an income of over $100,000, arising from a state tax of J mill on the dollar. Washburn observatory, built in 1878-80, at a cost of $30,000, was given to it, with a full equipment, by Governor C. C. Washburn. Many summer visitors are attracted to this charming little city by its pure springs, bass-fishing, boating, beautiful drives and Chautau-quan assemblies. It also has a large number of manufactories. Population 25,531. Madison, James, fourth president of the United States, his two terms extending from i8ootoi8i7,wasborn at Port Conway, Va., March 16, 1751, and graduated at Princeton College in 1772. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1780 and in 1784 to the legislature of Virginia, in which he was largely instrumental in securing the fullest religious liberty to the people. He also was one of the leading spirits in the convention of 1787, which framed the constitution of the United States; and in great measure it was due to his influence that the instrument was ratified by the legislature of Virginia. Madison was a member of Congress during Washington's administration; and, although he retired to private life when John Adams became president in 1797, he was the author of the Resolutions of 1798,

adopted by the legislature of Virginia in opposition to the famous alien-and-seditión laws of the Adams administration. During Jefferson's administration (1801-9) Madison filled the office of secretary of state with such ability that he was chosen Jefferson's successor and inaugurated president, March4,1809. The principal feature of his administration was the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States, which was terminated by the treaty of Ghent, Dec. 14, 1814, although the battle of New Orleans was fought on the 8 th of January following. On retiring from the presidency Madison took up his residence at Montpelier, Va., where he died on June 28, 1836. While not distinguished for brilliancy of intellect or great oratorical powers, Madison was a pure and able statesman, and was well-worthy of the universal respect accorded him. See Life by Adams and Life and Times by Stoddcrd.

Madison Square Garden is an amusement hall at the corner of 26 th and 27 th Streets and Madison and Fourth Avenues, New York City. It contains an amphitheater accommodating over 20,000 people, with a contrivance for covering the floor with water four feet deep for aquatic sports. This amphitheatre is used for flower, dog, poultry and horse shows annually; and mass-meetings, circus performances etc. frequently. There also are a theater, restaurant, concert-room and ball-room. A tower 368 feet high crowns one of the corners, and is surmounted by a gilded statue of Diana, poised as a weather-vane, by St. Gaudens. Visitors are admitted to the tower on payment of 25 cents; and are taken to about 100 feet from the top by an elevator. The whole area occupied by the building is 200x425 feet, every part of which is utilized. It is built entirely of masonry, iron and glass, and is fireproof. It was opened in 1890.

Madoc (mad'ok), a Welsh prince, who is believed by his countrymen to have discovered America 300 years before Columbus. It is said that he sailed westward in 1170 with a small fleet, and, after a voyage of several weeks, reached a country whose inhabitants and productions were very different from those of Europe. After remaining for some time in this new country, he returned to Wales and equipped another fleet, with which he set sail and was never heard of again. The story will be found in Lloyd and Powell's Historié of Cambria. Southey has made the legend the subject of one of his poems. -

Madras (mà-drăs'), the capital of southern India (Madras Presidency), is on the coast of the Sea. of Bengal, which washes the eastern coast oi the presidency, about 225 miles north of Ceylon, It is the center of all the great military roads, is the terminus of two railway lines, and is connected with a system of canals. Nearly all the most important offices and the headquarters of every department

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JAMES MADISON