tions see Ewing's Magnetization of Iron and Other Metals, which undoubtedly is the best treatise on the subject in the English language.                                     Henry Crew. Magno'lia, a genus of highly ornamental trees or shrubs, containing about 20 species, which are native to North America and eastern Asia. The finest of the American species, the one most largely cultivated in the south, is M. grandiflora or bull-bay, which is native from South Carolina to Louisiana. In its wild state it reaches a height of 100

feet and has very large, thick leaves, the flowers being frequently a foot in diameter when flatly expanded. It is one of our most beautiful ornamental trees, in the time of flowering marvellously beautiful, and the great, creamy, lily-like blossoms of wondrous fragrance. The tree as a rule rises to a height of from 60 to 80 feet, the top is round, the leaves are long, thick, very glossy, and are evergreen. The bark is brownish-gray. The wood, which is strong, is used chiefly for fuel. It is a familiar tree of southern garden and street, grows wild in river swamps and barrens, is seen at its best in the forests of western Louisiana. The other native magnolia in common cultivation is M. glauca or sweet bay. In the north it is but a shrub, but in the south is a tall tree. It is found from eastern Massachusetts down to Florida

and west to Texas. It is slender in form, its oval leaves are thick and glossy. The blossoms are creamy-white and fragrant, in shape not unlike the yellow pond-lily.

Mag'pie, a bird of the crow family, closely related to the jays but distinguished by having a much longer and graduated tail. The true magpies are mostly inhabitants of the Old World. The American form is a variety of the European species, and occurs in the northwest from Alaska and the border of the Arctic barrens to the arid regions of the southwest. It is about 16 or 18 inches long, its extremely long tail giving it a striking appearance in flight. Its plumage is of glossiest black and snow white, a most effec-

tive combination. If offered encouragement and treated generously, it makes friends with ranchman and cabin-dweller, is easily tamed, and can be taught to articulate a few words. Its note is harsh, and it keeps up a continual chattering when disturbed. Its food mainly is snails, worms, frogs, rats etc. Its nest is protected by rough thorns. Magpies are noted for thie^ishness; they have a propensity to carry away and conceal bright articles, and therefore often steal jewelry. A great amount of popular superstition attaches to them; they were long regarded as birds of evil omen, associated with witchcraft and the black art.

Magruder (m-grōō'dr), John B., an American soldier, was born on Aug. 15, 1810, at Winchester, Va. He graduated from West Point in 1830. He served throughout the invasion of Mexico under General Pillow, as the commanding officer of a battery. He remained in the regular army until the breaking out of the Civil War, when he entered the Confederate army, in which he became a major-general. At the close of the war he retired to Mexico, where he accepted a commission as major-general in the army of Maximillian. Upon the collapse of the attempted empire he returned to Texas, lecturing in various southern cities. He died at Houston, Tex., Feb. 19, 1871.

Mag'yars. See Hungary.

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