Hindu chiefs to acknowledge him as their leader and with them overran and subdued a large portion of the territory of the emperor of Delhi. Under the fourth sovereign's reign there were five Mahratta states. In 17 i the Mahrattas suffered a frightful defeat at the hands of the ruler of Afghanistan. They lost 50,000 men in this conflict. After many long and bloody contests with the British and their allies (1780, 1803, 1817— 18), with the exception of Sindia, they were reduced to dependence. Sindia's power was broken in 1843. The son of the last reigning rajah, who became a British prisoner in the neighborhood of Cawnpore, was the infamous Nana Sahib, whose connection with the mutiny in 1857 is historic. See India.

Main, a river of Germany, the largest affluent the Rhine receives from the right. It mingles its yellow waters with the green current of the Rhine opposite Mainz (May-ence), after a zigzag course of 307 miles, the last 205 of which are navigable. Its waters are joined to the Danube by a canal. The Main divides northern from southern Germany. Frankfort is one of the chief cities on its banks.

Maine, the nation's sunrise portal, situated in the northeastern corner of our land, can boast as early discovery and settlement as any part of North America. It was called Maine because thought to be the "mayne" land of New England. It is the most northeasterly state, and is bounded on the north and east by New Brunswick, on the south and east by the Atlantic, on the west by New Hampshire and on the northwest and north by Quebec. Its extreme length is 350 miles, its width 225, and its total area 33,0 .0 square miles, the land-surface being 29,895 square miles. Maine has a coast of about 225 miles, but the numerous indentations of the sea. make a tide-line of not less than 2,500 miles. It has been aptly called "hundred-harbored Maine" by Whittier.

History. It is more than a tradition that the Northmen visited the coast. The Cabots, sent out by England in 1497-8, crossed the Gulf of Maine during their first voyages. Verrazano sailed along the coast in 1524, and was so pleased with the grandeur and beauty of the region now known as New England that he called it New France. The coast was visited and explored by Gomez in 1525; by Rut, an Englishman, in 1527; by Andre Thevet, a French Roman Catholic priest, in i556;by Pring, sent out by England, in 1603; and in the same year by De Monts, who took possession of the land in the name of France. In 1605 Weymouth landed at the island known as Monhegan, and took possession of the country in the name of James I of England. In 1607 Captain Raleigh Gilbert landed at what now is Pemaquid and made a settlement at Phipps-burg, but this had a brief existence. The second colony established by the English

was founded in 1616 near Biddeford, and numerous settlements followed in 1623. French explorers made a settlement on Mt. Desert Island in 1613. Settlements were also made about this time on York and Kennebec Rivers. In 1614-15 Captain John Smith visited the shores of Maine, and published a brief description and ' a- map of the country and named it New England. In 1Ŏ50 the territory was under six governments, and the colonists being weary of the strife fostered by these unnatural conditions called on Massachusetts for aid and finally came under its control. In 1742 the population had increased to 12,000. The settlements mostly were along the shores and near the rivers. In 1790 the population was 96,540. In 1785 the people asked for separation from Massachusetts. This was finally granted in 1819, and in 1820 Maine was admitted as a state. It was the first state to pass a prohibitory law. The boundary line between the British possessions and Maine caused a long dispute, but in 1842 it was finally settled.

Climate. The climate, though cooler than might be expected from its latitude, is not severe. The summer heat is tempered by sea-breezes and cool winds from the north. The cold of winter has a constancy which makes it less severely felt than the changing temperatures of more southern sections. The average winter temperature is 200. The summers are short, less than five months between frosts, even in the southern part, but the thermometer sometimes rises for a few days to 1000. The average summer heat is 620. The lakes and forests attract great numbers of tourists, and the sea-coast is lined with the cottages of summer-residents from all parts of the country. Some of these resorts, notably Bar Harbor, Old Orchard and York Beaches and the islands in Casco Bay are among the most popular and fashionable ones in the country.

Minerals. The fact that the surface is made up of the bases of two mountain ranges explains the great variety of minerals found in the hills of Maine. Granite is abundant in the western portion, and a belt of the same rocks extends along the coast and for miles inland. The convenience of transportation is a large factor i 1 giving Maine the second rank in this product. The best-known minerals are red, gray, white and dark granite, feldspar, quartz, mica, limestone, marble and tourmaline. The crystalline rocks produce many rare gems. Iron, copper, silver, gold, tin and manganese are found in small quantities. The higher portion of the surface has a thin and rocky soil and is unproductive. Along the river valleys and in the region of the lakes the soil is fertile.

Forests. One of the most valuable of Maine's natural resources is her extensive forests. The whole northern portion is covered with trees, and is the great timber-producing area. The many lakes and livers