MANCHURIA                                            "57                                              MANGANESE

flour and paper mills, tanneries, woodenware I factories, brick-yards, foundries and the repair-shops of the Southern Railway. The city owns and operates its waterworks, and has the service of three railroads. It was annexed to Richmond in 1910.

Manchu'ria, a part of the Chinese Empire which comprises the northeastern lands between Mongolia and the Gulf of Liao-tung, was brought prominently to the notice of the world by the Russo-Japanese War. Russia had long been encroaching upon its fertile western plains, and during the Boxer rebellion she had occupied Manchuria (1890). In 1902 Russia agreed that in 18 months she would withdraw; and it was her refusal to carry out this engagement that led to a declaration of war by Japan. The resources are many and varied. The mountains of the eastern half are interspersed with fertile valleys; while the great western plain produces tobacco, indigo, cotton, rice, maize, wheat etc. Bears, tigers, wolves, deer and many fur-bearing animals dwell in the woods and mountains. Iron, coal, silver and lead are found amongst the minerals. Mukden, the capital, is yielding in importance to the seaports, especially Niu-chwang, Dalny and Port Arthur (Japanese). Since the Russo-Japanese War Manchuria is under the protection of Japan. It is partially traversed by three railways, two of them Russian-built and one British-built. The climate on the whole is dry and temperate, yet subject to great extremes of heat and cold.

Mandalay (mn'd-lā), the capital of Upper Burma, was founded in i860. It was captured by the British in 1885. It is in the form of a square, each side a mile long, and is surrounded by a wide moat and a wall. The most famous building is the Aracan Pagoda, with a brazen image of Buddha visited by thousands of pilgrims. The great business is silkweaving. In 1886 a flood and a fire destroyed a tenth of the city. Population, with cantonment, 183,816.

Man'derson, Charles Frederick, an American soldier, lawyer and politician, was born at Philadelphia, Feb. 9, 1837. He removed to Canton, 0., in 1856, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. In 1861 he entered the volunteer army as a private and rose through successive grades to the rank of brevet brigadier-general. He was in many of the battles of the west, and was severely wounded at Lovejoy's Station, Ga. At the close of the war he settled to practice law in Stark County, O. ; but removed to Omaha, Neb., in 1869. He was city-attorney of Omaha for a number of years, and was elected to the United States senate in 1883, where he served until 1895, being president pro tern, of the senate in the 51st congress.

Mandin'gos is the name given to a group of West African negroes who are estimated to number several millions. The Mandingos appear to have been confined at one time to

! the northern slope of the Senegambian plateau. Thence they spread by conquest over much of western Africa, retaining their language while allying themselves to a large degree with the conquered races by intermarriage. The English had commercial relations with the Mandingos as early as 1618. The French, however, cut into this trade in the 18th century. The [Mandingos are a distinctly intelligent people, Arabic in their civilization and Mohammedan in their religion. They have been concerned in fierce Mohammedan crusades against neighboring tribes of pagans, the most remarkable being that of 1862. The mixture of non-negro blood in the Mandingos is evidenced by the frequent occurrence of aquiline noses among them. They live in walled towns built of baked clay. Some of these towns number as many as 10,000 inhabitants. They have leather, cotton, iron and gold manufactures; and carry on a considerable trade with English and French merchants.

Mandolin (măn'dō-ltn), a musical instrument somewhat like the lute. The body is made by gluing together narrow pieces of different kinds of wood. A sounding-board, finger-board and neck like a guitar are added. The sound is made by a plectrum. The finest kind is the Neapolitan mandolin, with four double strings.

Manetho {man'ē-thō), high priest of Heli-opolis, Egypt, who lived in the third century B. C. At the request of King Ptolemy Philadelphus he wrote a history of his country, which, as shown by comparing the fragments that remain with the monuments, was written from true sources. He divided the time from Mens to the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses (B. C. 525) into 30 dynasties. This division has been followed by all historians of Egypt.

Man'fred, regent and king "of Sicily, was an illegitimate son of Emperor Frederick II, and was born in 1231. At 19 he became prince of Tarentum, regent in Italy for his half-brother Conrad and, later, regent in Apulia for his nephew Conradin. He was forced by the pope to flee to the Saracens, but, returning, defeated the papal troops and in 1257 became master of Naples and Sicily. Next year he was crowned king at Palermo, and soon conquered all Tuscany. But Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX of France, claimed Manfred's dominions as a gift from the pope, and at the bloody battle of Benevento, in 1266, Manfred was treacherously slain. His widow and three sons died in prison, where his daughter was kept for 22 years. His history is a favorite subject for plays and operas. See Byron's Manfred.

Manganese (măn'g-nĕs) is one of the heavy metals. It is reddish-white in color and very hard and brittle. It rusts very rapidly in the air. Pure manganese is merely a