MANKATO

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MANOMETER

good harbor ind a considerable lake-trade, and is served by the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad and the Wisconsin Central. Its industries consist of ship-yards, tanneries, edged-tool and agricultural implement works, foundries, machine-shops and glue-factories. Church-furniture is made, there are canning and knitting factories, and dairying is important. Manitowoc has a county training-school for teachers, a splendid courthouse, several churches, an admirable school system and a Carnegie library. Population 13,027.

Mankato (măn-kă'to), a city of Minnesota, county-seat of Blue Earth County, is on Minnesota River, 86 miles southwest of St. Paul; it is situated in a very fertile region. The state normal school is located here, and there are good public and parochial schools, two business colleges, a city-hall, court-house, many churches, a public library, five weekly and two daily papers, five banks and several hotels. It manufactures tiles, flour, oil, knit-goods, wooden-ware, brick, cement, lumber, beer and butter. Near the town are valuable stone-quarries. Mankato has the service of three railroads. It is lighted with electricity, and has a public water-supply. It was settled in 1853 and incorporated in 1868. Population 10,365.

Mann, Horace, an American educator and reformer, was born at Franklin, Mass., May 4, 1796. He graduated at Brown University in 1819, and began to study law. As a member of the Massachusetts legislature he founded the state lunatic asylum. In 1833 he became president of the state senate. For 11 years he was secretary of the Massachusetts board of education. He subsequently abandoned politics and business and gave his whole time to the cause of education, generally working 15 hours a day. He became John Quincy Adams' successor in Congress in 1848, where he opposed the extension of slavery. He was president of Antioch College, Ohio, from 1853 till his death, Aug. 2, 1859. See his Life by Mrs. Mann.

Man'na, a sugary substance obtained from the manna ash-tree by making crosscuts into the stem. This tree is grown in Sicily and Calabria mainly for its sap, called manna. In July and August deep cuts are made near the base of the tree, and, if the weather is warm enough, the manna begins to ooze out of the cuts slowly and hardens into lumps or flakes. Manna is light and porous, in the form of crystals, easily broken, yellow in color and with a sweetish, somewhat bitter taste. There are several other manna-yielding plants besides the ash, as the manna-bearing eucalyptus of Australia. The manna eaten by the Hebrews in their wandering in the wilderness was what is now called Mount Sinai manna, which falls to the ground from the branches of a kind of tamarisk. It oozes out through holes made in the bark by little insects. It is not true manna, but is a kind

of reddish, sticky syrup, and is eaten by the monks of Mount Sinai like honey with their bread.

Man'ning (Henry Edward), Cardinal,

was born July 15, 1808, at Totteridge, Hertfordshire, England. He was educated at Oxford, and soon came to the front as an eloquent preacher and leader in the English church. In 1851 he joined the Roman church. He studied for a time at Rome, was made provost and then archbishop of Westminster. In the Vatican Council (1870) Manning favored the doctrine of the pope's infallibility, which was then declared. He was made cardinal in 1875. Besides being foremost in most Roman Catholic movements in England, he took part in many good works for bettering the social life, as the temperance movement, housing the poor, education and the rights of workingmen. A great churchman and a reformer, he also was an accomplished man of the world and scholar. Among his writings are Characteristics, The Catholic Church and Modern Society, Four Great Evils of the Day, Temporal Power of the Pope and England and Christendom. Cardinal Manning died at Westminster, Jan. 14, 1892.

Manometer (m-nSm'-iĕr), an instrument for measuring fluid-pressures. There are three principal types of manometers. The simplest type is merely a U-tube, partially filled with mercury and open at both ends. If, now, one arm of the U-tube be connected with the vessel in which the pressure is to be measured, the level of the mercury in the other arm will change ; and the difference of level between the two arms plus the barometric height will give the pressure in the vessel. Water is sometimes used instead of mercury. This kind of manometer is shown in Fig. 1. The second type of manometer is one in which a U-tube is also employed — but a U-tube with one end sealed off and inclosing a definite amount of gas. The open end being connected with the vessel in which the pressure is to be measured, the volume of the gas inclosed in the other end is changed. By use of Boyle's law the pressure may be computed as soon as the volume of the inclosed gas is known. Lord Kelvin's deep-sea sounding apparatus is merely a manometer of this type, by which the pressure at any point in the sea is measured. From this pressure the depth of the sea is computed. A third type of manometer is the one commonly employed on steam-boilers and known as a pressure-gauge. This

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FIG. 1