MARLITT                                                   1174                                                 MARMONT

"a very murdering battle." The slaughter was tremendous, the casualities reaching 20,000 on the side of the allies and 8,000 on that of the French. The last campaign was in 1711, and when town after town had been taken from the French, the treaty of Utrecht gave 30 years' peace to Europe. Meanwhile the queen, tired of the tyranny ^of the duchess who had ruled her as a child, threw off the yoke. The charge of having embezzled public money was brought against the duke, and he was stripped of all his offices till George I came to the throne in 1714, when, in a day, he was again placed where he had stood after the battle of Blenheim. He died near Windsor, June 16, 1722. See Coxe's Memoirs, Saints-bury's Life and Thackeray's Henry Esmond.

Marlitt (mar1 lit), E. (nom de plume of Eugénie John), novelist, was born at Arn-stadt, Germany, Dec. 25, 1825. She began life as a public singer, but, losing her voice soon after, for some years she lived as companion to the Princess of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen, who had in earlier life assisted her. In 1863 she began the publication of those serial novels which made her famous, writing for Die Gartenlaube, an illustrated journal. Her best-known works are Gold Else; Das Gcheimniss der Alten Mamsell (translated and published as The Old Ma'mselle's Secret) Reichs-gräfin Gisela (Countess Gisela); Die Zweite Frau (The Second Wife) ; Im Hause des Kommer ■ zienrats; and Die Frau mit den Karfunkel-steinen. Her style was clever, popular and eminently successful in winning many readers, although her works were severely criticised by those usually accepted as authorities in literature. She died on June 22, 1887.

Marlowe (mar'lo), Christopher, the greatest English dramatist before Shakespeare, was a shoemaker's son, and was baptized at Canterbury, Feb. 26, 1563 or 1564. He studied at King's School, Canterbury, and at Cambridge. The earliest of his plays that we still have is Tamburlaine the Great, which was probably played in 1590. In spite of its bombast it is far ahead of any tragedy that had yet appeared on the English stage. It is in blank verse, of which Marlowe was the first to discover the strength and variety. Soon after was played The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus. Other playwrights have made additions, but parts show Marlowe's genius at its height, especially in the description of Helen's beauty. Edward II, authorized to be played about 1593, is the ripest of his plays. It has not the fine poetry of Faustus and the first two acts of The Jew of Malta, but is better planned and more complete. Edward II is fully equal to Shakespeare's Richard III. Charles Lamb said: "The death-scene of Marlowe's king moves pity and terror beyond any scene,

ancient or modern, with which I am acquainted." There seems no doubt that Marlowe had a hand in the three parts of Henry VI and, probably, in Titus Andron-icus. His beautiful poem, Hero and Leander, was left unfinished. Shakespeare in As You Like It quoted the line: "Who ever loved that loved not at first sight?" and the watermen, too, sang couplets as they sculled the Thames. At Deptford, on June 1, 1593, Marlowe met a violent death in a quarrel with a serving-man.

Marlowe, Julia, a distinguished American actress, prominent especially in Shakes-perian roles, was born at Caldbeck, Cumberland, England, in 1870, and came with her parents to America in 1875. She played with a juvenile company at the early age of 12. Her real name is Sarah Frances Frost; but she was known on the stage for a time as Frances Brough. After the age of ió she studied seriously for three years for the stage in New York. In Boston she won recognition in 1888 as a star in the part of Parthenia in Ingomar. She has since become a great favorite in such parts as Rosalind in As You Like It and Viola in Twelfth Night. She played as joint star with Sothern during several seasons, including an English season in 1906-07. She was married in 1894 to Robert Taber; but secured a separation, and in 1899 a divorce followed. Miss Marlowe possesses great charm of manner and variety in the expression of histrionic moods.

Mar'mion, Lord, the hero of Scott's romance of Marmion, is a messenger who has been sent from the English court to James IV, the warrior-king of Scotland. Lord Marmion arrives in time to see the battle of Flodden Field. He is guided by a pilgrim De Wilton, who was thought to have met his death at Marmion's hand. Lord Marmion himself meets his death at Flodden; but De Wilton's love and fate are more happy. The description of the battle is told in the forceful if rugged meter which Scott affected; and, from the point of view of clearness of detail and spirited appreciation is one of the masterpieces of battle-poetry. The poem was written in 1808.

Marmont (mar'môn' ), Auguste Frederic Louis Viesse de, was born at Châtillon-sur-Seine, France, July 20, 1774. He entered the army when quite young and met Napoleon at Toulon. He commanded Napoleon's artillery^at Marengo, after which he became general of division. In 1805 he defeated the Russians at Castelnuova and was made duke of Ragusa. In 1809 he won the battle of Znaim and was made a marshal. He was defeated by Wellington at Salamanca. In 1813 he commanded a corps at Lützen, Bautzen and Dresden, but in the beginning of 1814 was forced to make a truce with Barclay de Tolly, which • obliged Napoleon to give up his throne.