MARY THE VIRGIN                                n8o                      MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

philosophy. In 1842 be became editor of a democratic newspaper, the Rhenish Gazette. In 1843 he went to Paris, then the headquarters of socialism. He soon began the writing and labor for the advancement of socialism which made the work of his life. Driven from France in 1845, he settled in Brussels, where he wrote his attack on Proudhon's philosophy. His chief work at Brussels was the reorganization of the communistic league, for which he wrote the famous Manifesto. Marx took an active part in the Revolution of 1848, and after its failure settled in London. In 1859 he published his Criticism of Political Economy, which showed a remarkable knowledge of the economic growth of modern Europe. He was foremost in founding the International Society. His greatest book, Capital, came out in 1867. This book, as also his other works, shows him to have been a man of wonderful knowledge handled with masterly skill. Marx, much more than any other man, influenced the labor movement throughout the world. He died at London, March 14,1883. See Labor and Socialism.

Mary the Virgin, the mother of Jesus, is held in high honor by all Christians. Of her life but little is known. It is implied in Matthew that she was of the same family as her husband and a descendant of David. She is mentioned but a few times in the New Testament, and almost always with reference to her relations to Christ. The last notice of her is of her "persevering in prayer" with the disciples and the holy women at Jerusalem after Christ's ascension. A letter speaks of her as having lived with John at Ephesus, where she died and was buried. Another letter asserts that she died and was buried at the foot of the Mount of Olives. The story is also told of the apostles coming to her tomb on the third day after her burial, and finding the tomb empty but breathing out an "exceeding sweet fragrance." In art she is usually indicated by the term The Madonna; in ecclesiastical phrase as Mary the Virgin. The date of her death is commonly fixed at 48 or 3 A. D.

Mary I of England, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, was born at Greenwich Palace on Feb. 18, 1516. She is usually known as Mary Tudor. When a girl she was a great favorite with her father, and was devoted to her mother and church. When her mother was divorced, Henry treated her harshly, and during her half-brother Edward's reign she lived in, retirement. But no threats could make*-her conform to the English church. On the death of Edward, July 6, 1553, Mary became entitled to the crown. Though Lady Jane was declared queen, the whole country favored Mary, who was able without bloodshed to enter London in triumph on Aug. 3. The queen showed remarkable leniency to-

ward her enemies. She sought gradually and carefully to bring back the Roman religion. A few leading reformers were imprisoned, but there persecution stopped. Queen Mary's reign was ruined by her marriage to Philip II of Spain. The proposal caused Wyatt's rebellion. This rising was put down and Jane Grey was, with her husband and father, beheaded. Cardinal Pole entered England as the pope's legate, and the country became once more Roman Catholic. Then began the persecution which earned the queen the name of Bloody Mary, when some three hundred victims were burnt at the stake. During this time Mary was almost helpless with ill-health. Calais, the last English foothold on French ground, was lost, and Mary died on Nov. 17, 1558. See the histories of Froude and Lingard and England under Edward VI and Mary by Tytler.

Mary II of England. See William III.

Mary Mag'dalene, probably so named from Magdala, a town of Galilee, a woman mentioned as "Mary Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils," was among those that accompanied Jesus. She is held to be the same as the woman "which was a sinner" who washed the feet of Jesus with her tears and wiped them with her hair and anointed them. She is thought by some to be Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazarus, for which there is little ground. The story that she passed her last days in the desert in penitence for her sinful life has been made the subject of paintings by Guido, Correggio, Canova and other great masters.

Mary Queen of Scots ( Mary Stuart) was the daughter of James V of Scotland and

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MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

Mary of Lorraine, daughter of the French Duke of Guise. She was born at Linlithgow on Dec. 8, 1542. Her misfortunes began with her birth. Mary, on the death of her father, became a queen before she was a week old. But, hating an English match, the young queen was offered (1548) to the