86                                             MASSENA


History. The earliest discovery of the land embraced in Massachusetts is thought to have been made by the Norsemen about iooo. In 1497 the Cabots reached its coast. But the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth, Dec. 22, 1620, is the date of the first permanent settlement. The stone on which they landed is carefully guarded at Plymouth. Other settlements were made later, forming Massachusetts Bay Colony. The colonists endured great privations, and suffered terribly in Indian wars. The government at first was in the hands of the colonies and was carried on with Puritan vigor; but in 1692 the country was ruled by a governor appointed by the king. The first battles of the Revolutionary War were fought on the soil of Massachusetts, at Lexington and Bunker Hill, and the troops of Massachusetts were among the earliest on the field in the Civil War. See Barry's History of Massachusetts and Palfrey's History of New England.

Massachusetts Indians. Massachusetts when first settled was occupied by five Algonquin tribes : the Pennacooks, the Massachusetts, the Nausets, the Pokanokets and the Nipmucks. These tribes were all friendly, save the Nausets, with whom Plymouth made a treaty of peace. Missions among the Indians were begun by the May-hews of Martha's Vineyard in 1644 and by John Eliot two years later. After five years' work Eliot gathered "the praying Indians," as the converts were called, at Natick, and translated the Bible into their language. By 1674 the Christian Indians numbered 3,200. The next year King Philip's war broke out, which began with the rising of the Pokanokets under Philip, their chief, and spread to the Nipmucks, Massachusetts and Pennacooks. The frontier settlements were ravaged; the praying Indians were attacked by red men and by white men, and the savages were not conquered nor the war ended until the death of Philip in 1676. Many Indians were sent as slaves to the West Indies; the Pennacooks mostly joined tribes eastward or in Canada; the others quieted down and were given lands from time to time. They have since mostly intermarried with whites or negroes, and now there are less than 100 full-blooded Indians in the state. See Abbott's History of King Philip and Moore's Life of John Eliot.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology was established in 1861 to further industrial science and, especially, manufacturing, commercial and agricultural science. Its expenses are met partly by original endowment, partly by fees, and partly by gifts from Massachusetts and from the United States. Its students number almost 2,000, and its staff of instructors about 200. The institute tries to combine fcberal education in arts with technical education in the direction of a given pro-

fession. This is one of the institutions which helps to maintain the pre-eminence of New England in the manufacturing processes and industries. The institute holds property to the value of some $10,000,000.

Massasauga. See Rattlesnake.

Massasoit {mas's à-soif ), a chief of the Pokanoket or Wampanoag Indians, ruled over most of southern Massachusetts from Cape Cod to Narragansett Bay. His tribe, once some 30,000 in number, shortly before the landing of the English had lost all but about 300 by pestilence. In 1621, three months after Plymouth had been founded, Massasoit and 60 warriors, armed and painted, came to the settlement and made a treaty of peace. This treaty was kept for 50 years, and Massasoit always was friendly to the settlers. His home was where Warren, R. I., now stands, and here he entertained Roger Williams for several weeks when on his way to Providence after being banished from Massachusetts. Massasoit was honest, kept his word and loved peace. He died in 1661. His son Pometa-com, on his father's death, went to Plymouth and asked to be given an English name. He was named Philip, and became the leader in King Philip's war.

Masséna (ma'sd'na'), André", duke of Rivoli, prince of Essling and the greatest of Napoleon's marshals, was born at Nice, Italy, probably of Jewish parents, May 6, 1758. He served 14 years in the Sardinian army. Early in the French Revolution he joined a battalion of volunteers, becoming a general of division (1793). He distinguished himself greatly in the campaigns in upper Italy. After Jourdan's defeat at Stockach, in 1799, Masséna was given command of the army in Switzerland and by his crushing victory over Suvaroff's Russians at Zurich freed France from the danger of invasion. In 1804 he was made a marshal of the empire and commander of the army in Italy. He kept Archduke Charles of Austria in check, crushed him at Caldiero, and overran Naples. In the campaign of 1809 against Austria he commanded on the right, bank of the Danube, and covered himself with glory at Land-shut, Eckmühl and Ebersberg-on-Taun. In 1810 he was sent to Spain to drive out the English, and drove Wellington back upon his intrenchments at Torres Vedras. Finding it impossible to break the English lines and harassed by lack of supplies, he made a masterly retreat but was recalled in anger by Napoleon. He himself said his failure was owing to the disobedience of his captains Ney and Junot. He submitted to the Bourbons at their restoration, and was made a peer. In strategy and tactics Masséna was like Napoleon in quickness and ability, and was brave and unwearied on the battlefield. He died at Paris on April 4, 1817.