MAYENCE                                                 1193                                                     MAZZINI

day. Roman Catholics celebrate the month as the Virgin's month.

Mayence (ma'yons') or Mainz (mints), the capital and largest town of the grand-duchy of Rhenish Hesse, Germany, on the Rhine, near its union with the Main. It is a fortified city, with double wall, bastions, outworks and a citadel in the center, and commands both, sides of the river. There is a monument to Gutenberg, with a statue by Thorwaldsen and a bronze statue of Schiller in the public squares. The house in which Gutenberg was born still stands, as does the one where he had his first printing-press. Mayence is an old city, having been a place of importance under the Romans. It was the head of the league of Rhenish towns in the 13th century, and through Gutenberg became the bookmaking center. In 1801 it belonged to France, but in 1816 was assigned to Hesse-Darmstadt. Since 1871 it has been a fortress of the German empire. Population 76,946.

May"f low'er, the name of the vessel which in 1620 brought the Pilgrim Fathers from Southampton, England, to Plymouth Rock, Mass., has become a historic word in America. The little vessel was of only 180 tons burden. She arrived at her destiivation on the 21st of December, 1Ŏ20. A society of the Mayflower Descendants, now having some 2,000 members, was formed in 1894. The Pilgrims were Congregationalists or Independents in search of a land where they might have full liberty of conscience.

Mayotta or Mayotte (ma'yot'ta) is the chief of the Comoro or Comore Islands, midway between the northern tip of Madagascar and the Mozambique coast, the more important of the others being Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan, wit*1 a total area of 620 square miles and a population of 47,000, of which Mayotte has 140 square miles and 11,640 inhabitants.

Mazarin (m'z'ran'), Jules, cardinal and chief minister of France during the youth of Louis XIV, was born on July-14, 1602, at Piscina, Italy. His ability for diplomacy was early seen, and he accompanied a papal legate to the court of France. Here he met Richelieu, who, foreseeing his future, engaged him to further French interests in Italy. In 1639 he openly entered the service of Louis XIII, was naturalized a Frenchman, and through Richelieu's influence gained a cardinal's hat. Richelieu further, before his death, recommended Mazarin to the king as his successor. He ruled with less friction than Richelieu, though with almost as great power. The opposition of parliament to his taxes, followed by the arrest of the leaders, brought on the first of the wars of the Fronde. When he had Cond and Conti arrested in 1650, he had to go into exile. He now saw his mistake in separating himself and the queen from every party in the state, and bent all his masterly powers to form a new royal

party. In 1653 Mazarin came back in triumph, and from that time his power was reestablished, while he quickly regained his popularity. Under his rule the influence of France abroad was greatly increased. He gained the alliance of Cromwell by giving up Dunkirk ; made French influence felt in southern Germany by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648; while the league of the Rhine, formed in 1659, and the marriage of Louis XIV in 1659 with the infanta Maria Theresa made France a claimant of the throne of Spain. Mazarin died at Vincennes, March 9, 1661. See Gustave Masson's Mazarin.

Mazeppa (m-zep'), Ivan Stefanovih, hetman or chief of the Cossacks, was born in 1664 of a poor but noble family of Podolia, Poland. He became a page at the court of John Casimir, king of Poland. A jealous nobleman had him stripped naked and bound on his own horse, lying on his back and with his head to its tail, and let the animal loose, leaving Mazeppa to his fate. The horse carried him, senseless from exhaustion, to its native wilds of the Ukraine, according to the usual story. A more likely account is that his horse carried him through woods and thickets and brought him back, torn and bleeding, to his owji home. Mazeppa now joined the Cossacks, became secretary to their hetman, Samoilovich, and in 1Ŏ87 was chosen his successor. He won the confidence of Peter the Great, who loaded him with honors and made him prince of the Ukraine. But when Russia interfered with the freedom of the Cossacks (q.v.), Mazeppa determined to free them from the rule of the czar, and to this end conspired with Charles XII of Sweden. Peter discovered the treason, but long refused to believe it. Mazeppa's hopes perished in the disastrous battle of Pultowa in 1709, and with Charles he fled to Bender, the Russian fortress in Bessarabia, where he died the same year. His story is the subject of a famous poem by Byron and of two paintings by Vernet.

Mazzini (mat-se'ne), Giuseppe, an Italian patriot, was born at Genoa on June 22, 1805. He entered its university when only 13, and before he was 19 was a practicing lawyer. In 1821 the sight of the refugees from the unsuccessful rising in Piedmont stirred him to devote himself to freeing his country. As a member of the Carbonari he was imprisoned in 1830. When set free the next year, his life-plan was settled. His first step was the formation of the Young Italy association. The first and last duties of its members were to work to make a free, independent and united nation. The masses were to be educated to understand their rights, and taught to secure them, if need be, by force. Shortly after Charles Albert became king of Sardinia, Maz-zini urged him to put himself at the head of the struggle for national independence. His answer was a sentence of banishment. From