MICHIGAN CITY                                      I2IÇ                                                 MICROBES

mines in the world are found near Lake Superior, at Keweenaw Point, and gold mines are in operation near Ishpeming, The forests of northern Michigan made the state one of the leading lumber-states of the Union, but these are nearly exhausted.

Manufactures. Among the manufactories are many depending upon the large supply of lumber, as wooden bowls, windmills, broom-handles, pumps, wheelbarrows, wood-pulp, veneers, carpet-sweepers, beehives and toys. The manufacture of furniture places Michigan in the third rank in this branch of manufacturing, and has given Grand Rapids worldwide renown. Shipbuilding is carried on largely, as is the making of cars of all sorts and snow-plows for the use of railroads, cariages and wagons, stoves, engines and agricultural implements. Flour and gristmill products and cereal breakfast-foods are manufactured extensively Battle Creek is noted for them. Other industries are connected with the beet-sugar production, with that of fermented liquors and with the manufacture of tobacco and cigars. There also are considerable activities in the operations of creameries and cheese-factories.

Agriculture. The soil is a light, sandy loam, barren in the north but rich and fertile in the south, and the state is one of the best fruit-states in the Union. Apples and peaches are the principal crops, but grapes, pears and plums are also grown, and Michigan takes second rank for its crop of berries. It also has second place for the growth of sugar-beets, and much attention is given to raising peppermint and celery. In 1906 the yield of wheat was 13,644,960 bushels, of corn 54,575,000 bushels and of oats 43,747,500. Cattle, dairy-products, poultry, hay and vegetables are important industries

Education. Michigan has a thorough and efficient system of schools for higher education as well as for elementary education. Besides nine colleges and universities for both sexes and besides professional schools, Michigan maintains 8,066 schoolhouses, with 16,504 teachers, and four normal schools. The University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, one of the largest institutions in the country, was one of the earliest and most successful of state universities. The agricultural college is at Lansing, the mining school at Houghton, and there are colleges at Kalamazoo. Adrian, Albion, Battle Creek, Hillsdale, Detroit, Olivet and Holland. There are public libraries in Detroit, Grand Rapids and several cities, the state-library is at Lansing, and there is a fine library at Ann Arbor.

State Institutions. There are a school for the deaf and dumb at Flint; a blind school and a boy's industrial school at Lansing; an industrial school for girls at Adrian; a school for the feeble-minded and epileptic at Lapeer; and at Cold water a school for

dependent and neglected children, which was the first of its kind in the United States The Soldiers' Home is in Grand Rapids; the state prisons at Jackson and Marquette; and the reformatory at Ionia.

History. Michigan was first visited by French Jesuits and a mission established for the Chippewas in 1Ŏ41, In 1688 Father Marquette renewed the mission and later formed another at St, Ignace for the Hurons v/hich soon became a French fort. Other settlements were made by La Salle, Duluth and Cadillac. In 1760 there were British garrisons at Detroit and other points, many being destroyed by the Indians under Pon-tiac. Detroit was the capital of the British possessions in the northwest until 1796. In the War of 1812 it was taken by the English and retaken by Commodore Perry. Michigan was admitted to the Union in 1837. The capital is Lansing (population 31,229), though the chief city is Detroit (population 465,766). The population, 2,810,173, includes 6,000 Indians and a large number of Canadians. See Michigan by Cooley.

Michigan City, Ind., a town in Laporte County, on Lake Michigan, and its only lake-port, 38 miles east of Chicago. It has a good harbor, and manufactures cars, refrigerators, hosiery, knit underwear, lumber, launches and launch-engines, pressed sand-brick, furniture and boats. It also enjoys a large trade in salt, lumber and iron-ore. It contains a college and state-prison and car-shops. Population 19,027.

Michigan, Lake, the third in size of the five great fresh-water lakes of America and the only one lying entirely within the United States. It separates Illinois and Wisconsin from Michigan, its upper portion dividing Michigan into two parts. It is 228 miles long and from 50 to 88 broad, and covers 22,450 square miles. Its shores are low, with several lighthouses, and good harbors at Chicago, Milwaukee and Racine.

Mi'crobes are divided into bacteria, yeasts and molds. Bacteria are plants of a microscopic character, which are propagated by simple division or fission. Yeasts and molds have a different mode of growth. Bacteria assume a variety of forms; but usually approximate either to the form of a rod, a spiral or a sphere. So wide is their distribution that one hundred different kinds of bacteria are estimated to occur in the human mouth. They appear to have been observed as early as the latter part of the seventeenth century by Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch scientist; but the difficulty of isolating one kind from another postponed accurate study of bacteriology until the studies of Pasteur and Koch upon fermentations and gangrenes gave a fresh impetus to this science. Pure cults of bacteria of a certain species are now skilfully isolated for observation. For