MISSISSIPPI, UNIVERSITY OF            1241                                                   MISSOURI

of which are uncultivated because of this danger. The levees or embankments to prevent floods have been extensively built by the United States, and cost a large amount yearly for repairs. The first white man to discover the waters of the Mississippi was De Soto in 1541, and in 1673 Marquette and Joliet descended it nearly to its mouth, while La Salle sailed to the Gulf and took possession of the country for his king in 1682. See Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi River by Humphrey and Abbot.

Mis'sissip"pi, University of, was granted its charter in 1844, but was not actually set into operation until four years later. An elective system of studies, under the minor restriction of a division into schools, has been in operation since 1872. The degrees that are granted are those of doctor of philosophy, master of arts, bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, bachelor of mining, bachelor of engineering (either electrical or civil), bachelor of philosophy and bachelor of pedagogy. For entrance, high schools which are approved by the Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Southern States have the right of sending students to the university without examination. The total property and endowment of the university is valued at over one million dollars.

Missolonghi (mis's-lŏn'g), a town in Greece, built on a swampy flat, is memorable for the sieges through which it passed in the struggle for Grecian independence. In 1821-22, under Marco Bozzaris. and Mavrocordato, it held out for three months against the Turks. Again, in 1825, it resisted a large force of Turks for ten months; at last, putting the women and children in the center, the garrison cut their way through the Turkish army, 2,000 of them reaching the mountains. Byron joined the Greeks in their struggle at Missolonghi in January, 1824, and died there on April 9, 1824. Statues of Bozzaris and Byron have been erected here. Population about 9,000.

Missou'ri (mts-soo'r), one of the central states of the Union, lies on the western side of the Mississippi. It is 280 miles long, varies from 208 to 312 miles in width, and covers 68,735 square miles, being almost twice as large as Indiana. It is divided into two parts by the Missouri River, which flows 436 miles across the state from Kansas City to St. Louis.

Surface. The north part is rolling prairie, with forests along the rivers, while the south is hilly, the Ozark Mountains being in this part and reaching 1,500 feet in height, while another ridge in the southeast has many bold knobs, as Pilot Knob and Iron Mountain. There are a number of curious caverns, many miles long, with hidden lakes and streams and great halls and galleries, adorned with stalactites, and also numerous groups of mineral springs.

Drainage. This state has excellent drainage, its eastern border being formed by the Mississippi. Twelve miles above St. Louis the Missouri unites with it, and near St. Louis the Meremac. From the Ozarks come the Grand Platte, Osage and Gasconade, which are tributaries of the Missouri.

Climate. The climate is marked by extremes, lacking alike the moderating influence and protection of sea air or sheltering mountains.

Minerals. Missouri is rich in minerals, its iron fields (including Iron Mountain, which covers 500 acres, and Pilot Knob) being almost inexhaustible and supplying very rich ore. Lead is found in large quantities, some of the caverns having millions oi pounds on their roofs and sides. It yields more zinc than any other state, and has several nickel mines, very large coal-fields and fine quarries of stone.

Agriculture. The soil is rich and places the state third in the value of agricultural products. Corn, tobacco, oats, wheat, hay and fruits are the chief crops. Missouri is surpassed only by California in the production of wine, and also is a large stock-raising country.

Manufactures. The manufactures are flour, beer, wine, tobacco, jewelry, shoes, clothing, railroad and street cars, drugs etc., and there is a large beef and pork-packing business.

Commerce. River transportation for freight is being revived, and large quantities of cereals are shipped from St. Louis to New Orleans for foreign markets. Many important railroad systems traverse the state, connecting at various points with lines extending in all directions. About 30 raihoads enter St. Louis alone.

Education. Missouri has a public school system adopted in 1839. Free public schools for white and colored are required by law in every district for children from 6 to 20. The state has four normal schools, a university (established in 1839), with an agricultural college and farm at Columbia and a school of mines at Rolla. Washington University and St. Louis University at St. Louis, Drury College at Springfield, Westminster College at Fulton, William Jewell College at Liberty, Grand River College at Edinburg and Missouri Valley College at Marshall are only a few among many institutions, and Missouri's school fund is the largest of any state in the Union.

Population. The population is 3,293,335. The capital is Jefferson City (population 12,000); the other large cities are Kansas City (population 248,381), St. Louis (population 687,029), St. Joseph City (population 77,403) and Joplin (population 32,073).

History. In 1762 France cedsd to Spain the territory west of the Mississippi, and St. Louis, founded in 17Ŏ4, was a Spanish city