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to be taught the advantages of organization. Next year he was elected national vice-president of the order, and was acting president in 1898, when the trouble in the coal regions became acute. From 1899 until 1907 he served as national president of the United Mineworkers, and in that period led the mineworkers through their two great struggles (1900 and 1902) for improved conditions. His judgment and honesty of purpose and his moderation were recognized; and he preserved the sympathy of the public for the striking miners. He has been second vice-president of the American Federation of Labor since 1900. He is an influential member of the National Civic Federation, serving on the executive committee of its industrial department.

Mitchell, Maria, an American astronomer, was born at Nantucket, Mass., Aug. 1, 1818. She helped her father, who was a teacher, in his work in astronomy, and soon became fitted to make investigations for herself. In 1847 she received a gold medal from the king of Denmark for the discovery of a comet. She was employed in observations connected with the coast survey and in compiling the nautical almanacs. She was the first woman made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 18Ŏ5 she became professor of astronomy at Vassar College, holding the position until her death at Lynn, Mass., June 28, 1889.

Mitchell, Silas Weir, an American physician and writer, was born at Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 15, 1829. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania and took his medical degree at Jefferson Medical College. His earliest researches were in the study of poisons, and he became an authority on the venom of snakes. His later work has been in the study of diseases of the nerves, and he stands at the head of the profession in that department of medical science. He has published, in connection with others, Gunshot Wounds and Other Injuries to the Nerves, Injuries to the Nerves and their Consequences and Clinical Lectures on Nervous Diseases, and has made many contributions to medical journals. In another line of literary work he has published five volumes of poems, grouped in 1896 in Collected Poems, and several novels, the more notable of the latter being Hugh Wynne, an admirable story of the Revolutionary War, The Adventures of Franois; and When All the Woods are Green. Among other stories are Dr. North and his Friends and In War Time. Among his more popular professional works are Doctor and Patient and Wear and Tear or Hints for the Overworked.

Mit'ford, Mary Russell, an English writer, was born in Hampshire, England, Dec. 16, 1787. On her tenth birthday her father bought her a lottery ticket, which drew a prize of $100,000. This money was extravagantly spent, lasting only long enough

to give her a good education. She had to write to support the family, and wrote for magazines, and plays for the stage, having earlier published a volume of poems. Her best work was the sketches she wrote of the life around her, which appeared first in the London Magazine and were collected in five volumes under the title of Our Village. She also published Recollections of a Literary Life and Atherton, a story, but her fame depends upon the charming sketches. She received a pension from the government, which made her comfortable in her cottage, where she spent the remainder of her life, the center of a large circle of literary friends. She died on Jan. 10, 1855. See Life and Friendships of Mary Russell Mit ford by L'Estrange.

Mithradates (mith-r-dā'tēz) the Qreat, a king of Pontus (111-63 B. C), Armenia and Parthia, countries in Asia Minor. He became king when about 13. The first Mith-radatic War, as it is called, was against Bith-ynia, whose king was sustained by the Romans. At first Mithradates conquered the Roman provinces in Asia Minor, but finally he had to make peace, giving up all his Asiatic conquests. In the second war, 83-81 B. C, Mithradates was successful; but he was defeated in the third war (74 to 66 B. C), Pompey finally driving him to his northern territories. Here he planned revenge, but was prevented from carrying out his purpose by the rebellion of his son, when in desperation he ended his life by suicide in 63 B. C. He was one of the strong eastern despots, well-educated, speaking all the 22 languages in use among his subjects. He made a fine collection of gems, pictures and statues.

Mito'sis. See Karyokinesis.

Mityle'ne. See Lesbos.

Mivart (mv'ar), St. Qeorge, an English naturalist, was born at London, Nov. ^o, 1827, and educated at Kings College. His chief publications were Genesis of Species, Elementary Anatomy, Man and Apes, Contemporary Evolution, The Cat, Nature and Thought, Types of A nimal Life and 7"he Origin of Human Reason. In the main he agreed with Darwin, although working independently of him, and at times he was considered to be radically in opposition to some of the theories of the later Darwinian school.

Mo'abites, a Semitic people who lived in the country east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, their land being divided by the River Ammon. They were subject to the Jews in the time of David, but revolted about 850 B C, and joined the Assyrians against the Jews. They are now lost in the Arab tribes of the region. Their country contains many rude stone monuments, such as have been found in the British Isles, supposed to be the altars of their worship. A large stone with an inscription of 34 lines, in Hebrew-Phcenician letters, was found in 1868 among the ruins of the ancient city of Dibon. It was broken by the Arabs, but