MONTEZUMA                                        1257                                       MONTPELIER

shore of the Plata inlet, about 125 miles east of Buenos Aires. It is built on a low point between the ocean and a small bay, and has stretched out to the foot of a hill 505 feet high, crowned by an old fort and a lighthouse. It covers about five square miles, with broad, well-paved streets. A cathedral with towers and a fine dome, opera-house, town-hall, university (with 112 professors and 530 regular students besides 61 pupils receiving secondary instruction) and a museum are among the public buildings . It has large beef-salting establishments, where over 400,000 cattle are killed yearly; and other industries, mainly of articles for home use. It is the cleanest and healthiest city in South America, and has a large foreign population, brought mainly from Italy, Spain and France. The first settlement dates back to 1726. Population 127,-298.

Montezuma or Moctezuma II (mŏn-ḗ-zoo'ma), the last of the Aztec emperors of Mexico (q. v.), was born in 1479 and ascended the throne in 1502. He gave his chief attention to the improvement of the laws of the country and to building the magnificent palaces associated with his name. His enormous expenses led to heavy taxation, which resulted in many revolts. When Cortez (a. v.), the Spanish conqueror, landed in Mexico in.1519, Montezuma tried to buy him off with his treasures of gold and silver. Admitting him to his halls as a guest, he soon found himself a prisoner in the Spanish camp. To quiet a revolt of the people Cortez led out Montezuma, who was wounded by a stone thrown by some one in the crowd. This, added to his other indignities, broke his heart. Tearing the bandages from his wound, he refused all remedies and food, and died at Tenochtitlan, June 30, 1520. See Conquest of Mexico by Prescott and Story of Mexico by Hale.

Montfort ( mont'fert ), Simon de, Earl of Leicester, an English general and statesman, the leader in the war of the barons against Henry III (q. v.), was born in the beginning of the 13th century. The king was surrounded with foreigners who fared sumptuously at the expense of the people; bad harvests and famine added to their discontent; and in 1258 the barons appeared in arms before Parliament and demanded the driving out of the foreigners and the appointment of a committee of 24 to manage affairs. Later in the same year Parliament drew up laws called the Provisions of Oxford, which the king agreed to. By these provisions the foreigners were to surrender their castles, and Montfort gave up Kenil-worth and Odiham. In 1261 the king repealed the act of parliament, which brought Montfort to the front as leader of the barons. He surprised the king's army at Lewes and captured the young prince, May 14, 1264.

In his arrangements for a peaceable settlement of the difficulties a parliament was called, in which the barons, bishops and abbots sat, with four knights chosen from each shire and, for the first time in England, two representatives from certain towns. This may be looked upon as the germ of the modern parliament. He was, however, ahead of his times; the barons were dissatisfied and Gloucester deserted ; the young prince escaped; and, joining with Gloucester, defeated Montfort, Aug. 4, 1265. He was killed on the field of battl (Evesham), but his memory survives among the people, who know him as St. Simon. The Song of Lewes, first printed in a collection of political songs in 1839, is a full account of this constitutional struggle of the barons. See Constitutional History of England by Stubbs and the Life by Prothero.

Montgomery (mŏni-gŭm'r-), the capital of the state of Alabama, is situated on Alabama River. It is surrounded with fine country seats, and is a growing city, with artesian water, electric lights and other modern improvements. Since 18Ŏ5 the manufactories have increased rapidly, including foundries, steam-mills, cottongins and oil-works. The capitol is a fine building, overlooking a wide stretch of country. The city is 400 miles from Mobile on the Alabama, a distance formerly passed over by flatboats in a three months' journey. Population 38,136. .

Montmorency, Falls of, are in Montmorency River, eight miles below Quebec, where it empties into the St. Lawrence. The water falls over a precipice 250 feet high and 50 wide. There is a series of natural steps above the falls worn by the water, and at the foot of the falls an ice-mountain, sometimes 200 feet high, is formed every winter. It is a place of resort for tourists.

Mont Pele, a volcanic mountain in the island of Martinique, overlooking the town of Saint Pierre, was the scene of a terrible and disastrous eruption during May, June, July and-August, 1902. On May 8th over 20,000 people were destroyed in Saint Pierre by an eruption of steam and red-hot ashes. The town met the fate of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Boiling mud, steam and rocky bombs, rather than lava, characterized the eruption. The height of the mountain previous to the eruption was estimated at 4,300 feet. After the eruption it had been completely transformed. A sort of column was thrust up above the original summit, so that the height after the eruption was no les? than 5,200 feet.

Montpelier ( ■mont-pe'U-er ) is the capital of Vermont and the chief city in Washington County. It is on Winooski River, 206 miles from Boston. It is built on a plain, surrounded by hills. It has a granite state-