MORRILL                                                   1265                                                     MORRIS

what may be called organography, that is, the development of organs, and also embryology, that is, the development of the plant as a whole. Morphology is also closely identified with the relation of plants to one another by descent, and is therefore bound up with what is called phylogeny, which means a consideration of the ancestral forms of plant races. From this point of view morphology is also the most fundamental contributor to taxonomy or classification, which can only be natural when it expresses the real morphology of plants. In any botanical study morphology is regarded as most fundamental, for it underlies all other work with plants.            John M. Coulter.

Mor'rill, Justin Smith, an American statesman, was born in Orange County, Vt., April 14, 1810. He had only a common-school education, and at an early age he engaged in business, which he later gave up for farming. He was elected to Congress in 1855, remaining in the house of representatives from 1855 to 1867, at which time he was elected to the United States senate, and later was re-elected for six successive terms of six years each. His congressional service exceeded in length that of any living colleague. He held for many years in the house the important position of chairman of the committee of ways and means, and he was the author of the tariff bill of 1861 known by his name. He wrote Self-Consciousness of Noted Persons, published in 1886. He died on Dec. 28, 1898, at the capital of the nation.

Mor'ris, Clara, well-known actress and writer, was born in 1849 in Toronto, Canada, but at the age of three months was taken to Cleveland, where she received an elementary education To assist her widowed mother she became a member of a reputable ballet, and was fortunate in receiving valuable instruction in the art of acting. She soon became the leading lady of the company, and later attained distinction in the best theater at Cincinnati. In 1870 she joined the famous company established by Mr. Daly for his Fifth Avenue Theater, New York City. She became one of the leading actresses of America, excelling in parts that exhibit strong emotions. In 1874 she married Fred. C. Harriott. When ill-health compelled her to retire from the stage in 1885, she commenced writing books and also articles for magazines. Among her works are Little Jim Crow, A Silent Singer, A Pasteboard Crown, Life on the Stage (personal experiences and recollections) and Stage Confidences.

Morris, Gouverneur, an American statesman, was born at Morrisania, N. Y., Jan. 31, 1752. He was active in political matters during the Revolution. During 1781-84 he was assistant, to Robert Morris, superintendent of the national finances. In 1787 he was a member of the convention that framed

the United States constitution. He spent part of 1791 in England as confidential agent of Washington, and was minister to France till 1794. He was three years (1800-3) United States senator from New York. He died on Nov. 6, 1816. See Gouverneur Morris by Roosevelt, in the American Statesmen Series, and Diary and Letters by Anne Cary Morris.

Morris, Robert, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Lancashire, England, Jan. 20, 1734. He came to America when 13 and entered a counting-house at Philadelphia, becoming a partner finally. He opposed the Stamp-Act and was elected to the Congress of 1775. He voted at first against the Declaration of Independence, but signed it when it was adopted. He was again in Congress in 1777, and chiefly managed the finances of the country. In 1781 he was elected superintendent of finance, and had almost entire control of the money operations of the new government. He established the Bank of North America in 1782, and in supplying the army in 1781 issued his own notes for over Si,000,000, which were finally repaid. He resigned in 1784, declining in 1788, when senator, the secretaryship of the treasury offered him by Washington. From 1789 to 1795 he represented Pennsylvania in the United States senate. He, with Gouverneur Morris, sent the first American vessel to Canton in 1784. He lost his fortune by speculation, and was confined in prison for debt during the last years of his life. He died at Philadelphia, May 8, 1806.

Morris, Sir Lewis, an English poet of Welsh origin, who was knighted in 1895 for his verse, was born in 1832 at Carmarthen, Wales, studied at Oxford, and practiced law until 1881, when he was appointed secretary of the University of Wales. His first poems, Songs of Two Worlds, published under the name of A New Writer, were very popular, passing through several editions. His Epic of Hades appeared in 1876, and since then, Gwen, a Drama; The Ode of Life; Gycia, a Drama; Songs Unsung; A Vision of Saints; Songs without Notes; and Idylls and Lyrics, all of which have been popular. He had a felicitous literary style, pure and elevated in tone. His later writings include Harvest Tide and The New Rambler. He died in London on Nov. 12, 1907.

Morris, William, an English poet, was born near London in 1834. Educated at Oxford, he became intimate with the painter, Burne-Jones, and studied painting himself. In 1858 appeared his first poems, The Defense of Guenevere and Other Poems, which were scarcely noticed, though they are the work that will give him a name in the future ; his long poem, The Life and Death of Jason, in 1867, attracted attention; and The Earthly Paradise confirmed his reputation as a poet. His later publications are Love is