MOSAIC

1268

MOSELLE

in 1864, and became United States senator in 1867 and 1873. He was influential in Congress, serving on important committees and advocating the 15 th amendment to the constitution. He died at Indianapolis, Nov. 1, 1877, having been a cripple from paralysis since 1865. See Life by Foulke.

Mosaic (mo-z'k) is designs in colored stones or glass, made by the use of small pieces fitted together, and held in place by cement. The pattern or picture becomes thus practically indestructible. This art flourished during the palmy days of Rome, being used for floors, walls and ceilings alike. It was revived under the Byzantine empire, especially for churches ; and came into great popularity again in Italy during the middle of the 13th century. In the workshops connected with the Vatican workmen are constantly engaged in reproducing in mosaic the pictures of world-renowned artists, using not simply marbles of natural colors, but glass and artificial stones especially prepared and exquisitely tinted for this purpose. Very striking effects are produced by the use of glass backed with gold or silver, or colored like sea-shells. Not only have the Russians greatly excelled in modern mosaics, but the Americans, and some of the finest designs ever produced are to be found in American public-library buildings, notably at Washington and Chicago. Florentine mosaic, used chiefly for jewelry, personal ornaments and paper-weights, is composed of shells or stones of natural colors cut in much larger pieces than are employed in Roman mosaics. The demand for mosaic increases every year, and skill in the use of the materials employed will doubtless bring the art to great perfection in our own country.

Mosby (moz'bi), John Singleton,, a noted Confederate soldier, was born at Edgemont, Powhatan County, Va., Dec. 6, 1833. He studied at the University of Virginia, and was admitted to the bar in 1855. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was practicing law at Bristol, Va. He entered the Confederate army as private, but soon became adjutant in the cavalry service, and by 1862 was colonel, operating an independent command whose special work was the cutting of communications between the Federal front and its base of supplies and capturing exposed cavalry outposts. The swiftness and daring with which Colonel Mosby operated made him greatly dreaded in the valley of the Shenandoah. At the close of the war he returned to the practice of law. He became a Republican and supported Grant for the presidency in 1872. He was appointed by President Hayes consul at Hong-Kong in 1878, where he remained on duty till 1885. He was removed by President Cleveland, and returning to the states made San Francisco his home. In 1901 he was appointed United States land-agent and assigned to

duty in Nebraska. In 1887 Mosby published his War Reminiscences.

Moscow ( mos'ko), a city of Russia and its former capital, is situated in the center of European Russia on Moskva River, 403 miles southeast of St. Petersburg. It covers 40 square miles. The Kremlin (citadel), in the center, is an inclosed space surrounded by walls with 18 towers and is the most sacred spot in the Russian empire. All who enter by the Savior gate must bow to the image of the Savior that stands above it. Inside the walls are three cathedrals, many churches and monasteries, the great tower, four palaces, an arsenal and the hall of the synod, with a fine library. The tower, built in 1600, is 270 feet high, commands a magnificent view of the city, and at its foot is the bell called King of Bells. Before the arsenal is a pile of 800 or 900 French cannon, the trophy of 1812. Outside of the Kremlin are the Cathedral of St. Basil (1554), the historical museum, the great bazar, the university, founded in 1755, with a library of 200,-000 volumes and 4,497 students, and a public museum with fine collections, a picture-gallery and a library numbering over 300,000 volumes. Moscow is the busiest city in Russia except St. Petersburg, and has numerous manufactures of cotton, silk and woolen goods, leather, tobacco, candles, carriages, pottery and matches Its situation in the center of European Russia, between the Baltic and the Black Sea, makes it a great commercial market, and it carries on an extensive trade in grain, timber, furs, hides, tallow, tea, sugar and mineral products.

Moscow was first occupied by the Finns, and settled by the Russians in the 12 th century. The Mongols sacked the town in 1237 and 1293, but by the 14th century it had become firmly established, and in 1325 became the seat of the church officers for central Russia. The Kremlin was built in 1300 and was walled in 1367. Moscow continued growing in influence and power, and in 14Ŏ2 itsprince, Ivan III, took the title of czar of Russia. In 1547 it was burned down; in 1571 it was taken and burned by the khan of the Crimea ; and it suffered from the Mongols in 1591. St. Petersburg was made the capital by Peter the Great in 1713, but the old families and the peasantry still consider the holy city of Moscow as the real capital. The city suffered from fires again in 1739, 1748, 1753, and was finally, in 1812, set on fire and burned by its own citizens to save it from being taken by Napoleon. Since then it has been largely rebuilt. Population 1,092,360.

Moselle (mo'zel'), a branch of the Rhine, rises in the Vosges Mountains in France. It passes through Luxemburg and Rhenish Prussia and joins the Rnine at Coblentz. It is 315 miles in length, about 100 miles being navigable. Here the well-known sparkling wine, Mosel, is manufactured.