MUNKACSY                                              1279                                                        MURAT

public utilities, as car-lines, gas-works etc., limiting the responsibility of government to a small number of people and doing away with the cumbersome board of aldermen. In Detroit the referendum has been adopted, and in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Denver and Portland, Oregon, both the initiative and the referendum. The initiative enables a small percentage of the citizens to compel the consideration of any proposal, and the referendum enables a similar small percentage to compel the council to refer any matter to the vote of the people at large.

The business with which a municipal government is concerned is indicated by the list of departments given above in connection with New York City. In many cities the municipality has undertaken such enterprises as playgrounds and gymnasiums, libraries and reading-rooms, public baths, public laundries, public lodging-houses and cottages and public transportation.

With regard to foreign city-government we may n>te that the boards of aldermen and other local legislative bodies in Great Britain seem to attract a desirable class of men and to be characterized by intelligence, energy and progressiveness. In Germany perhaps the most noteworthy point is the frequent practice of electing the council for a term of years, while the mayor is often appointed for a long term of years or for life, after passing an examination and showing his qualificaiions for the position, as would any other professional man in applying for employment under the city's government. Much emphasis has long been placed in some European cities upon the beauty of the city. One of the reasons for this has been the desiie to attract to the city the wealthy; it is said that this has been the motive of the magnificent development in the past few years of the great city of Rio Janeiro, Brazil. But a higher motive is found in the desire to represent in the city the ideals of the nation through works of art. Men are everywhere waking to the fact that the city will in a few years be the abode of nearly half the civilized world, while it will be the constant resort of the other half for amusement, for instruction and for business. Hence it is essential that in the city men shall find inspiration similar to that which nature has always afforded to the better side of man. This can only be done by a truly beautiful city.

Munkacsy, Mihaly (morkă-ch), a Hungarian painter, was born at Mun-kcs, Hungary, Oct. 10, 1846. His real name was Michael Lieb; and his family, before the revolution of 1848, was one of modest affluence. The father having lost both property and life in the uprisings of that year, the son was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker. He was en-

couraged in his first artistic attempts by Samosy, an artist of some reputation; and, having reached the Vienna Academy, he was enabled to study to some purpose under Adam (Franz). He went to Dsseldorf in 1867, and there painted The Last Day of a Condemned Man, which at once won him fame. He removed to Paris in 1870, married in 1874, and built himself an elegant mansion. His best known works in America are Milton dictating to His Daughters and Christ before Pilate. He visited the United States in 1886, and painted several portraits of prominent people in New York. His earlier works show the somber effects of his laborious life; his middle period something of the lightness of the Parisian environment; but his greatest fame was won in the third period of his development from the treatment of historic and sacred themes. He died near Bonn, May 1, 1900.

Murat (mu'ra'), Joachim, king of Naples, was the son of an innkeeper near Cahors in France, and was born on March 25, 1771. He was at first intended for the priesthood, but the outbreak of the revolution sent him to the army, where he soon rose to the rank of colonel. Attaching himself closely to Napoleon, he served under him in Italy and in Egypt, achieving distinction in many battles. He was made a general of division in 1799, and greatly helped Napoleon on the critical 18th Brumaire by dispersing the council of five hundred at St. Cloud. Napoleon now intrusted him with the command of the consular guard, and gave him his youngest sister, Caroline, in marriage. Murat held his usual post, the command of the cavalry, at Marengo, where he covered himself with glory, and in 1801 was named governor of the Cisalpine Republic. When Napoleon became emperor, he continued to command his cavalry, and helped greatly to win the victories of Austerlitz, Jena, Eylau and other battles. In 1806 the newly made duchy of Berg was given him, and on Aug. 1, 1808, he was proclaimed king of the two Sicilies, under the name of Joachim I Napoleon. He took possession of Naples, but failed to secure control of Sicily. He governed well and won the hearts of his subjects. In the Russian campaign he commanded the cavalry; and the army after Napoleon left it. After crushing the Aus-trians at Dresden in 1813 and helping to fight the battle of Leipsic, he made a treaty with Austria and a truce with the British admiral; but as soon as he heard of Napoleon's return from Elba, he began a hasty war against Austria. He was twice defeated at Ferrara and Tolentino, and with a few horsemen made his way to Naples. Here he found the country in a state of insurrection, and at once proceeded to France. After the overthrow of his chief,