MURFREESBOROUGH                            1281                                     MURRAY CANAL

Mur'freesbor'ough, from 1819 to 1826 the capital of Tennessee, is 33 miles southeast of Nashville, and has several mills and factories, chief among them being cotton-gins, cotton compresses, machine-shops, tanneries, flour and lumber mills, red cedar ware and carriage-factories. Close by the bloody battle of Stone River was fought, Dec. 31, 1862, and Jan. 2, 1863, between Generals Rosecrans and Bragg. The Confederate army was forced to retreat. The losses on both sides, in killed and wounded, were nearly equal — Federals, 9,511; Confederates, 9,236. On this site is a national cemetery, which contains the graves of 2,333 unknown dead. Population 4,679.

Murillo (mű-rďl'lô), Bartolomé Efiteban, a famous Spanish painter, was born of poor

parents at Seville, Spain, and baptized, Jan. 1, 1 ó 1 8. He had a little schooling, and was then placed with a relative who was an artist, to study painting. He went to Madrid at the age of 24, where he was kindly noticed by Velasquez, his celebrated townsman, and through his influence was enabled to study the great Italian and Flemish masters in the royal collections of paintings. He went back to Seville, where he settled in 1645. Here he painted 11 large and remarkable pictures for the convent of San Francisco. At once he won fame and more orders than he could well fill; and was acknowledged as the head of the school there. In 1648 Murillo married a woman of fortune, and his house became a center of taste and fashion. About this time he passed from his first or "cold" style — dark with decided outlines — to his second or "warm" style, in which the drawing is softer and the color better. Of the second style good examples are St. Leander, the Nativity of the Virgin and St. Anthony of Padua. In 1656 he was at work on four large pictures in the form of a half-circle, which are the first examples of his third or "vaporous" style, the outlines vanishing in a misty blending of light and shade. In 1660 he founded the Academy of Seville; and was its president for a year. After this appeared Murillo's most brilliant paintings. Of the 11 pictures painted between 1661 %rid 1674 for the almshouse of San Jorge,

eight are held to he bis masterpieces. Among them are Moses striking the Rock, Abraham and the Angels, The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, St. Peter released from Prison and St. Elizabeth. His famous picture, The Conception, now in the Louvre at Paris, was sold in 1852 for $120,000. In 1681 he went to Cadiz, and while there fell from a scaffold when painting an altar-piece in the church of the Capuchins. He went back to Seville and died from his injuries, April 3, 1682. Murillo's pictures are in two groups : scenes from low life, gypsies and beggar-children (mostly painted in early life) and Scripture and religious works. His pictures show great technical skill and truth to nature and sentiment, while as a painter of the texture of human flesh he has never been equaled. See Miss E. E. Minor's Murillo and C. B. Curtis' Velasquez and Murillo.

Mur'ray, Hon. űeorge H., was born at Grand Narrows, Nova Scotia in 1861. He was educated at Boston University, and called to the bar in 1883. He was appointed to the Legislative Council 1889, and a member of the Fielding Administration in 1891. When Mr. Fielding resigned to go to the House of Commons, Mr. Murray was called on to form an administration. He was re-elected at each general election since, and now is Premier of Nova Scotia.

Murray, Lind'ley, an American grammarian, was born at Swatara, Lancaster County, Pa., April 27, 1745. He was educated at Philadelphia at a school conducted by the Friends. His father having removed to New York, he was placed in a counting-room there; but he ran away to pursue his studies at school in another state. He was later admitted to the bar, but during the Revolution was engaged in business in New York, where he rapidly acquired a fortune. In 1784 he retired from mercantile life, going to England where he purchased an estate and devoted himself to literary pursuits. His English Grammar, issued in 1795, was received with enthusiasm , and his' English Reader was used upon both sides of the Atlantic. These books retained their unbounded popularity in schools for 50 years or more. He died at Holdgate, England, Feb. 16, 1826.

Murray Canal. This canal is without locks. It extends through Murray Isthmus, giving connection westward between the headwaters of the Bay of Quinte and Lake Ontario and thus enabling vessels to avoid the open-lake navigation. It is five and one sixth miles long, and its depth is eleven feet below the lowest known lake level. The breadth at the bottom is 80 feet and at water-surface 120 feet. See Welland Canal.

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