This page of the book is from "The New Student's Reference Work: Volume 3" by Chandler B. Beach, Frank Morton McMurry and others.
eight with a curved line following may be placed above or below a passage, showing that it shall be thought of as being an octave higher or lower than written, the word loco showing when the effect of such mark ceases.
Pitch-representation requires that not only the relation of the +ones to each other shall be represented, but their exact pitch, on an instrument for -1 stance; hence to the staff are added the fixed pitch-names of tones. These are designated by the first seven letters of the alphabet, repeated with special marks for each octave. If once-marked G is written on " the second line of a staff, it will enable the staff not only to represent that tone as being in certain relationship to the tones on the other lines and spaces, but to represent the exact pitch of G — in this case in the treble voice. The clef-mark used to represent music for women's and children's voices is nothing more than such an ornamental G which, by showing the exact pitch of the second line of the staff, necessarily fixes the lines and spaces of all the rest of the staff. Similarly, a mark is put on the fourth line of a staff intended for rnen's voices, called the F clef, thus naming the exact pitch of the fourth line and, by this means, of all the other lines and spaces of this staff. Picture-representation requires a third group of signs in order to depict more exactly the relationships of the notes on the staff. These marks are sharps and fiats, which enable the line or space on which they are placed to represent a pitch a half-step above or below what they would ordinarily suggest, or double sharp and double flat, enabling the line or space on which they are placed to represent a whole tone above or below the normal. The use of these necessitates another mark called the "natural" or "cancel," which shows that the line or space is being used as it was before the sharp or flat was placed. Sharps and fiats are not only sometimes used before the notes they are expected to alter, but are grouped at the beginning of a piece, according as the key requires. Such grouping is called the key-signature.
This completes the survey of the most important characters for awakening the ideas of pulse-grouping, duration and pitch, necessary for forming the special idea of a given tune. Besides this, as was suggested at the opening, marks are necessary to indicate how the piece shall be performed or sung. These consist partly of signs, as dots, placed over notes showing that they should be performed in a disconnected way, or curved lines, showing that the notes included are to be connected, since they form part of the same musical phrase. The letter "f " from forte (Italian for loud) is used to show that the passage is to be
performed loudly, and the letter "p" from piano (Italian for soft) when the opposite effect is required, and these may be doubled or tripled for greater intensity. Or a mark like the letter "v" placed on its side may be placed over a note, showing that that particular note is to be emphasized. If a still stronger effect is required, an "sfz" or "fz" may be placed over the note. If the passage is to be made gradually stronger and then softer again, radiating and converging lines may be placed over it. If a passage is to be sung gradually slower or faster, the abbreviation "rit." or "ace." may be placed. To decide the general style of the performance, words, largely derived from the Italian, are written at the beginning of the piece : such are largo, slow, solemn; andante, with flowing, moderate movement; allegro, in a rather quick and lively manner; presto, very fast and energetic. This is sufficient to illustrate, but by no means exhaust, the marks and words used for suggesting ideas of interpretation. Besides general cyclopedias and dictionaries, there are the musical dictionaries, as Grove, Riemann, Elson and Baker. Charles Farnsworth.
Musk, a substance obtained from the musk-deer (which see) and used as the basis of costly perfumes. That imported from Tonquin, China, is the best. Cheaper varieties come from India and Siberia. It is also used in medicine.
Musk-Deer, a small deer separated from others by having no antlers in either male or female. The male, however, has sharp tusks projecting downward from the upper jaw which are used in fighting. These animals inhabit the high plateaus of Central Asia, usually living solitary and never in herds. They are shy, feeding mainly at night, and on account of the difficulty of approaching them they are usually caught in traps. A full-grown specimen is about three feet long and 20 inches high at the shoulders. They vary in color, but are commonly grayish or yellowish-brown, and whitish below. The musk is found in a sac the size of a very small orange, situated on the under surface of the abdomen. The sack contains an ounce or more of the crude musk, which is so powerful in odor as to nearly overcome those who skin the animal and remove the pouch. When fresh, the substance is said to resemble moist gingerbread in color and consistency.
Muske'gon, Mich., is situated four miles from Lake Michigan on Muskegon Lake, which is really a widening of Muskegon River and affords one of the finest harbors on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Muskegon is 40 miles northwest of Grand Rapids. It has a large number of good manufactories, including electric cranes, electric fuses and supplies, motors, boats, billiard-tables, bowling-alleys, underwear,