waterworks. The town was founded in 1780. and became the capital in 1843. General Thomas defeated the Confederates under Hood here, in December, 1864. Population 110,364.

Nashville, Battle of. When General Sherman started on his march to the sea, he sent General Thomas to Nashville, Tenn., to prepare to resist the Confederate army under Hood, who, after withdrawing from Atlanta, was moving on that point. To meet Hood's army, which had contested the possession of Atlanta with Sherman's entire army, Thomas was left with an entirely inadequate force, consisting in part of a mass of 12,000 new troops and a body of quartermaster's employees. To gain time for organization, Thomas sent Schofield to hold off Hood, resulting in the stubbornly contested battle of Franklin. Hood finally established his lines before Nashville on Dec. 2, and on Dec. 15 and 16 the battle was fought, which resulted in the rout of the Confederate army, with a loss of 13,500 prisoners and 72 guns. The remnant of Hood's army crossed the Tennessee and did not appear again as an army during the war.

Nasmyth ( na'smith ), James, a Scotch engineer and the inventor of the steam hammer, was born at Edinburgh, Aug. 19, 1808, and early showed an inclination for mechanics. At 17 he built a small working engine for crushing, and made five models of a condensing engine and a road locomotive. In 1839 he had to turn out a large wrought-iron paddle-shaft, and invented the steam hammer to do the work, but it was not perfected until 1842. He patented his invention, and it was adopted by the government in 1843. In 1856 he retired and died at London, May 7, 1890. See Life by Smiles. See Steam-Hammer.

Nasi, Thomas, an American caricaturist, was born in 1840 at Landau, Bavaria, and was brought to this country in 1846. At 14 he studied drawing for six months with an instructor, and a year later was employed as draughtsman on Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. Five years later, as special artist of this periodical, he was sent to England, and went thence to Italy, sketching the history made by Garibaldi, for the illustrated papers of New York, Paris and London. In 1861 he returned to New York and began his war sketches and political cartoons for Harper's Weekly, which were immensely popular. In 1871-3 his caricatures of Tammany, by him first depicted as a tiger, and of Tweed contributed largely to the redemption of New York City from ring-rule. Later he deliv-. ered lectures and illustrated several books. He was appointed U. S. consul-general at Guayaquil, Ecuador, in 1902, where he died on Dec. 7th.

Nasturtium, a branching, climbing or creeping herb, native of Europe and tem-

perate Asia and naturalized in America and elsewhere; much cultivated. There are about 20 different species. Some common names by which they are known are watercress and Indian-cress or lark's-heel. This latter has a showy flower varying in color from orange to scarlet and crimson. The leaves of some species are sometimes used for salad.

Natal (n-tV), a British colony on the southeastern coast of Africa, was discovered by Vasco da Gama on Christmas of 1497, and in 1800 was peopled by 94 native tribes Tshaka, a chief of the Amazulu, ruled the country from 1805 to 1828, when he was killed and his brother, Dingaan, placed on the throne by a political faction. Then the Boers, who had left Cape Colony to escape English rule, began a series of struggles with the natives, and in 1838, when a commission of Boers was murdered by Dingaan, a large body entered Natal to avenge the 'murder. The Dingaan faction was opposed by the followers of his brother Umpande, and with these the Boers united, attacking and killing Dingaan. Umpande then succeeded, recognizing the Boers as lords of Natal. In December, 1838, Sir George Napier, governor of Cape Colony, was sent to take possession of the territory, but his Highlanders were compelled to go to the Cape on account of disturbances there, whereupon (1839) the Boers hoisted the flag of the republic of Natalia. Later two English men-of-war forced a landing at Durban, and after a short struggle drove the Boers back to their capital. Peace negotiations were then concluded, and the larger portion became subjects of the British crown. But some crossed the mountains and entered what now is the Transvaal colony. Natal was formally annexed to the British dominions in 1843, and in 1844 became a part of the Cape of Good Hope. In 1856 it was declared a separate colony, and was given a sort of independent government, and before i860 a great part of its soil was held by immigrants from England. In 1875 there was great dissatisfaction on account of the English rule, and Sir Garnet (now Lord) Wolseley was sent to adjust matters. He was succeeded as governor by Sir Henry Bulwer. During his administration the fear of the strength of the neighboring Zulus under Cetewavo became so great, that Sir Bartle Frere, high-commissioner for South Africa, against the protests of colonists and governor sent a message which precipitated the Zulu war, from the results of which Natal was long in recovering. The charter now in force was granted in 1893, and in 1897 Zululand was annexed. The legislative authority resides in the crown, a legislative council and a legislative assembly — the crown being represented by a governor who appoints the ministry and, with their advice,