NAVAL OBSERVATORY

I3I2

NAVIGATION

mechanical drawing and navigation. The studies of the fourth year are varied according to the special line of duty to which the cadet devotes himself, as naval construction, gunnery, infantry tactics, international law etc. The academy has 102 instructors and about 750 students. The library contains 50,000 volumes. The government has recently spent $15,000,000 for improvements at the Naval Academy. These consist of several massive practice-halls, a magnificent memorial chapel, modern living quarters and fine roadways and terraces. The body of John Paul Jones, brought to America from Paris in 1905, is interred in the chapel.

Naval Observ'atory of the United States, The, an institution of the Federal government, is located at Georgetown, District of Columbia, under the superintendence of the bureau of navigation. It was established in 1842, and then called the Depot for Naval Charts and Instruments. The Nautical Almanac, issued yearly, is compiled at this place. The present equipment of this observatory is probably surpassed by no other in the world for the performance of the important functions intrusted to it.

Naval Reserve. In all the more important countries, in addition to the regular naval forces serving continuously with the fleet, there are others who are drilled and instructed in order to be able to supplement the regular naval forces in time of war. In times of peace these men are largely employed in the merchant marine, yachts, auxiliary government service, or are pensioners. The reserves of the French, German and Italian navies are derived chiefly from honorably discharged men who have served the required term of enlistment, but others, as fishermen, merchant sailors and those pursuing such other callings as afford experience useful in the war fleet, are employed. The naval reserve force of France numbered in 1906 about 114,000, more than 25,000 of whom were serving with the fleet; and the German naval reserve force numbered 110,-000. The Russian naval reserve force is somewhat similarly derived, but contains a greater proportion of untrained men unfamiliar with nautical life. The British naval reserve force is made up of the Royal naval reserve, the Royal fleet reserve and pensioners. The United States has no national naval reserve force, but has what is called a Naval Militia, which in a way answers the same purpose. There have been frequent efforts to secure the necessary legislation for the establishment of a regular naval reserve, and the Naval Militia is the chief result of these efforts. In 1887 a bill was introduced in Congress "to create a naval reserve of auxiliary cruisers, officers and men from the merchant marines of the United States," but it was not passed. In the same year the Navy Department prepared a plan of organization for a naval militia. In May of 1888 the

legislature of Massachusetts provided by enactment for the establishment of a naval battalion to be attached to the state volunteer militia. In the same year Pennsylvania and Rhode Island and in June of 1889 New York followed with similar legislation. The Massachusetts naval battalion was drilled on board the receiving ship Wabash and the New York battalion on the receiving ship Minnesota. Nothing more was done until March 2, 1891, when Congress appropriated $25,000 for arms and equipment of naval militia. A few weeks later California created by legislative enactment a naval battalion, and North Carolina with executive sanction and Texas by order of the governor did likewise. Ten other states and the District of Columbia have since made similar provisions. Now naval militia are organized in 16 states and the District of Columbia with 474 commissioned officers and 5,275 enlisted men, involving an annual expenditure by the national government of about $75,000. All matters relating to the naval militia come under the cognizance of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, who transacts all business relative thereto through the governors and adjutant-generals of the states.

Navarino {n'v-r'no) (officially Pylos), is a town of 2,000 inhabitants on the southwest coast of the Morea. in Greece and the best harbor in Greece. In 425 B. C the great battle between the Athenians and the Spartans, in which the Spartans were defeated, occurred in the bay; and on October 20, 1827, the combined British, French and Russian fleets annihilated the Turkish and Egyptian navies at the same place.

Navarro, Mary A. See Anderson, Mary.

Nav'iga"tion is the art of sailing a ship from port to port. There are two methods of determining the situation of a ship at sea. One consists in finding the latitude and longitude by astronomical observations; the other in noting the ship's direction and the distance traveled each day and in computing by trigonometry the position of the ship In the latter method the two instruments used are the mariner's compass to determine the direction and the log-line to determine the rate of travel. Winds and currents and variations of the compass needle render this method untrustworthy. The most accurate method of determining the position is by astronomical observations Every ship is provided with at least one accurate chronometer. Then, by noting accurately the time when the sun reaches its highest altitude, the true noon is found, and from difference in time as noted from the chronometer the longitude can be calculated. Similarly, the latitude may be calculated by observation with the sextant of the sun's altitude in the heavens at noon. When the sun is obscured at noon, other astronomical methods are resorted to, as observations at other