NEHEMIAH

I3╬9

NELSON

and in making various utensils and implements for household use. They all acknowledge a supreme power, and are much given to a belief in witchcraft, charms and spells. They have wooden images, which they think have power to drive away evil spirits and to protect them from sickness and witchcraft. They are fond of music, and make various musical instruments of simple and rude character. Among the negroes in this country many become skillful in the use of musical instruments, especially the violin and the banjo Since the emancipation of the slaves in this country many individuals have developed an ambition for education and the accumulation of property.

Nehemi'ah, a leader of the Jews after the exile, was a Jew holding the office of cupbearer to Artaxerxes when he heard of the unprosperous condition of Jerusalem. In the following year (444 B. C.) he obtained leave of absence and power to act as governor extraordinary of JudŠa, and arriving at the city caused its walls to be rebuilt, enlarged the population by drafts upon surrounding districts and brought back the LÚvites who had been forced to leave. On his second visit. 12 years later, he began new reforms, notably the movement against mixed marriages, the cleansing of the temple, a strict law of Sabbath observance and a provision for the maintenance of the temple and priests. The Book of Nehemiah originally formed the closing chapters of the undivided work, Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, containing the memoirs of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Nel'son, in the Kootenay district of British Columbia, is on the south bank of Kootenay River at the head of the rapids. It has 5,273 inhabitants, largely interested in the silver mines and smelters near by.

Nel'son River, a river in Keewatin District of the Canadian Dominion, has its source in Lake Winnipeg, and flows 400 miles northeasterly into Hudson Bay, discharging an immense volume of water. It is navigable for 127 miles from its mouth, but only for 70 or 80 miles for large steamers. Its chief feeder is the Saskatchewan, which empties into Lake Winnipeg.

Nel'son, Horatio. In the rectory of Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England, there was born, Sept. 29, 1758, the greatest naval commander of the greatest maritime power in history. Like James Watt, Horatio Nelson was so frail of body that it was not thought probable he would live to maturity. His father's small income as a clergyman and large family, forced the boy out of the home nest. At 12 he was entered as a midshipman in the navy. His maternal uncle, on whose vessel he made his first voyage, thought that the idea of trying to make a sailor out of the delicate, undersized boy ' was a piece of folly and that the most merciful course would be to discourage him. So,

on the first day at sea, he ordered the boy aloft saying: "You are afraid, lad?" "Yes, sir," replied the shivering morsel of a man; "I'm afraid, but I'm going to the top of the mast, sir." And go he did, but he never forgot that sickening experience.

When at 21 he was captain of a frigate, he always raced the new boys up the mast and saluted them at the top. The little fellows, frightened half to death but full of British grit, never disappointed him. He abolished the punishments then practiced, saying that cruelty made cowards. He promoted brave men and shared prize-money with his crews as well as officers. As a result his ships were famed for good order and for gallantry in action. To his men he was not an officer but "Our Nel." At Corsica he lost an eye, at Teneriffe an arm. In the battle of Copenhagen he pretended that he was unable to see a signal to retreat, sailed into the thick of the fight and saved the day. When told that, if he had failed, he would have been executed for disobeying orders,—-"Oh, no," he replied. "If I had failed, I and my ship and men would all have gone to the bottom." In his naval career of 35 years he never retreated or struck his colors.

As an admiral in command of a fleet he won his first victory in the battle of the Nile, Aug. 1, 1798, smashing the French fleet, on which Napoleon in Egypt depended for transport and supplies, so completely that the campaign had to be abandoned. Idol of England at 40, he was raised to the peerage and granted a fortune. Three years later he was made vice-admiral and a viscount. As the shadow of Napoleon lengthened across the English Channel, Lord Nelson's visibly failing health alarmed the country. To have ordered him out would have been inhuman, but he came forward voluntarily in May, 1803, and offered his remaining days in defense cf the empire. There was no one else ; England had no choice but to accept the sacrifice. For 14 months he lay in the Mediterranean off the port of Toulon. When the French fleet slipped out, he chased it to the West Indies and back; laid siege to it and the allied Spanish fleet in the harbor of Cadiz; and brought them both to bay off Cape Trafalgar, October 21,1805. In gomg into battle Nelson flew from the masthead of the Victory the signal that now is Britain's watchword: "England expects every man to do his duty."

The fleets of the enemy were destroyed, but in the hour of triumph the great commander fell mortally wounded on the deck of the flagship. As he lay in a midshipman's bunk, dying, wild cheers rang out, as ship after ship struck its colors or sank beneath the wave.

"England is safe," he murmured, looking up into the face of the officer who bent above him. His simple, loving heart turned like a boy's to his old comrade in arms for the last