9,000,000 were barren mountain tops, lakes and worthless country. Large amounts of capital are invested not only in agriculture and mining, but in meat-freezing and preserving, in tanning, wool scouring and factories for butter and cheese. Besides the wool crop and the farm and dairy products, there is a large annual export of tallow, hides, skins and leather, together with gold, valued at $10,000,000 for the yearly output. Progress was long retarded by wars with the Maoris, a magnificent race of barbarians. There are two houses of parliament, the members of both of which are paid. In the popular chamber sit four Maori members, representing native districts under the Maori representative act. There is no stats church, nor is any state aid given to any religion. The school system is administered^ by an educational department under a minister, ass;sted by education boards and school committees. The University of New Zealand is solely an examining body, awarding scholarships to be held by students at affiliated colleges. These are Otago University at Dunedin, with 25 professors; Canterbury College at Christchurch, with 13 professors; Auckland University College with 11 professors; and Victoria College, Wellington, with nine professors, including lecturers at each. All -are endowed with land, and in 1906 had 1,158 students in attendance. The public schools numbered 1,806, teachers 3,816 and pupils 137,623. There were 295 private schools with 16,378 pupils; three schools of mines; four normal schools; five central schools of art; 11 industrial schools; and 100 Maori schools. Most of the railways belong to the state and yield a good annual revenue; the gross mileage in both islands is 2,604 miles. In the chief towns there are tramways worked by cables, steam motors or electricity. New Zealand in 1899 offered a military force to the imperial government for service in South Africa. It is world-famous for its experiments in statesmanship and the nationalization of industry.

New'ark, N. J., county-seat of Essex County, and a port of entry, lies on Passaic River, nine miles from New York. It is a handsome city, with small parks and wide, shaded streets. It has a city-hall, court-house, public library and many churches, but its main feature is the 400 or more manufactories of brass and iron ware, hardware, machinery, trunks, saddlery, boots, shoes and hats. The city was settled by a Connecticut colony in 1666 and chartered as a city in 1836. Population 347,469.

Newark, 0., county-seat of Licking County, lies on Licking River, 31 miles northeast of Columbus. It is a manufacturing city, turning out machinery, furnaces, safes, rope goods, steel rails, boilers, flour and glassware. This city has one of the

largest bottle-factories in the world and the largest stove-works. Population 25,404.

Newbern (nu'bm), N. C, city, county-seat of Craven County, about 100 miles southeast of Raleigh. It is the port of entry of the Pamlico district; is at the junction of Neuse and Trent Rivers; and is served by three railroads, besides having steamers to New York and other Atlantic ports. The important industrial establishments are a turpentine-distillery, carriage and canning factories, fertilizing works, gristmills, planing mills, shingle-factories, a shipyard and the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad shops. A noteworthy building is the government building, which contains a custom house, a postoffice and a court-house. Separate schools are maintained for white and colored, and the city has several churches. The electric-light plant and waterworks are owned by the city. The place was settled in 1710 by Swiss and Germans, and named New Berne after Berne, Switzerland. It was incorporated as a city in 1723. Population 9,961.

New'berry, John Strong, an American scientist, was born at Windsor, Conn., Dec. 22, 1822, educated at Western Reserve College and Cleveland Medical College, graduating from the latter in 1848. He accepted an appointment in 1855 as surgeon and geologist to accompany the United States exploring expedition to the country between San Francisco and Columbia River. In 1857 he explored the canon of the Colorado, devoting nearly a year to the task. In 1859 he made scientific trips through southern Colorado, Utah, northern Arizona and New Mexico. During the Civil War he was in charge of all the operations of the United States Sanitary Commission throughout the Mississippi valley. At the close of the war he was appointed professor of geology in the School of Mines, Columbia College, New York. In 1869 he superintended the geological survey of Ohio. He was elected a member of nearly all the scientific associations of his own country and of Europe, and received the Murchison medal from the Geological Society of London in 1888. Perhaps his first publication was his report upon The Geology, Botany and Zoology of Northern California and Oregon; and his latest was The Paleozoic Fishes of North America. He died at New Haven, Conn., Dec. 7, 1892.

Newberry, Walter Loomis, American merchant and philanthropist, was born at East Windsor, Conn., Sept. 18, 1804. He removed to Chicago in 1833, where Jhe amassed a fortune in trade and banking. He left over $2,000,000 with which to erect and maintain a library. The building which was a result of this bequest fronts upon Walton Place, Chicago, and is one of the architectural ornaments of the city. The library it contains is one of the finest refer-