OHIO

1375

OHM

plucks credulity by the nose. Some of these have farms and perhaps do not charge up their consumed products as expense. The following state institutions are educational in every sense : the school of the Sailors' and Soldiers' Orphans' Home ; the School for the Blind; the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb — the fifth founded in the United States; the Institution for the Education of Imbecile Youth; the Boys' Industrial School; the Girls' Industrial Home — these for youth in need of "reforming"; and the Reformatory, at first named, and in reality still, the Intermediate Penitentiary. They are well-conducted as a rule, despite the fact that partisanship early assumed sway. The tendency is toward a cure of the evil.

The Teachers' Reading Circle movement began in 1882 in Ohio, and has spread into many states. Its purpose is to make the habit of reading pedagogy, literature, history and nature universal among teachers. The members number over 10,000. There also is a Pupils' Reading Circle. It is rapidly growing in numbers.

History. Politically speaking, the greatest event pertaining to this region was the Ordinance of 1787, passed by the Continental Congress in its last days. One provision of the ordinance is regarded as a fitting quotation in discourse of whatever sort about Ohio: "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged". This lofty declaration was retained in the constitutions of 1802 and 1851. The political history of the northwest begins with the settlement — 1788 — at the mouth of the Muskingum. In 1800 the great northwest was divided into two unequal parts, the Eastern Division, as it was named, being, territorially, what now is Ohio, with a wedge-shaped piece of southwestern Indiana and that portion of the peninsula to the north which lies east of the meridian passing through the mouth of the Greater Miami. Among the formative events of Ohio history the following are written in italics: (1) the bold march of George Rogers Clark with a commission from Virginia; (2) the obstinate refusal of Maryland to enter the Union until her sister colonies, owning or claiming territory beyond the Ohio, should cede it for the general good to the Federal government, and the consequent cession of those lands; (3) the ordinance of 1787 providing for not less than three or more than five states ; (4) the founding of Marietta and the setting up of a territorial government; (5) the battle of Fallen Timbers, with the Greenville treaty —-1795 — as its first fruit, its open door to homeseekers ; (6) the division — 1800 — of the vast extent north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi into the Eastern Section of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana Territory; (7) the

act of Congress enabling the people of the former division to form a constitution and a state government; (8) th deed whereby it changed from a territory to a state, t. ough which of three deeds did it is a question which, like Banquo's subliminal self, refuses to down and stay. The most recent critical discussion as to the date of Ohio's admission to the Union writes it March 1, 1803 Consult Ohio in the American Commonwealths Series and Short's Ohio.

Ohio, a river of the United States, one of the largest branches of the Mississippi. It was named by the French explorers La Belle Riviere (The Beautiful River). It is formed by the union of the Allegheny and Monon-gahela Rivers at Pittsburg, Pa., and flows southwest 975 miles, joining the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois. It is from 400 to 3,000 feet wide, spreading out so as to become quite shallow in dry seasons. It is subject to floods from the accumulation of snows in the mountains near its headwaters; there is a series of terraces along the banks, which have evidently been the bed of the river. The boundary between Ohio, Indiana and Illinois on the north and West Virginia and Kentucky to the south is formed by the Ohio. At Louisville are falls, which are passed by means of a ship-canal. The river is navigable for its entire length, and carries enormous fleets of boats laden with coal, besides other products of the regions.

Ohio State University, at Columbus, was organized as Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, and was opened in 1873. By legislation in 1878 „ e name was changed to The Ohio State University. The university is maintained by an ann al grant from the United States and permanent annual grants from the state. It comprises colleges of agriculture, arts, philosophy and science, engineering, law and veterinary medicine. The university is open to both sexes, and is nonsectarian. The instructors number 233, the students 3,181. It has a library comprising 70,000 volumes and an annual income of over $690,000.

Ohm (ōot) , Georg Simon, a German mathematician and physicist, was born at Erlan-en, March 16, 1787, and died at Munich, July 7, 1854 He was educated at the university of his native town, where he took his doctor's degree in 1811. In 1827 he published his great work on the galvanic circuit, in which he proved the simple relation existing between current, resistance and electromotive force, a relation known as Ohm's law. For this discovery Ohm was awarded the Copley medal by the Royal Society in 1841. In 1846-49 Kirchhoff extended this law and established two theorems known as Kirchhoff's laws, which include Ohm's as a special case. In acoustics Ohm discovered that the ear of itself analyzes any complex sound into simple tones in the manner contemplated in Fourier's theorem, a fact which later proved of