ORANGE RIVER

1389

ORATORIO

ordered that justices of the peace should not belong to Orange Clubs. July 1st and 12th are celebrated by Orangemen as anniversaries of the ba ttles of the Boyne and Anghrum.

Orange River, the largest stream in South Africa, flowing west into the Atlantic Ocean. It is 1,000 miles long, but is navigable only in the rainy season, and its mouth is obstructed by a bar.

Orange River Colony. This British possession in South Africa, after having existed for 46 years as an independent republic under the name of the Orange Free State, was, after military occupation by the British forces in consequence of the Boer War, annexed by proclamation on May 4, 1900, and is now known as Orange River Colony. The government is in the hands of a governor for the Transvaal and Orange River Colonies, with a lieutenant-governor for the latter, assisted by an appointive executive council and a legislative council of 18, ten official and eight unofficial, all nominated by the crown. It is intended to restore responsible government by degrees. The area of the colony is 50,392 square miles, the total population being, in 1908, natives included, 435,-000, Of this number, about 100,000 were white, who chiefly engaged in agriculture and in raising sheep, cattle, horses, goats, ostriches. This population is chiefly of Dutch origin. The colony was founded by the Boers who trekked from Cape Colony in and after 1836, and was declared independent in 1854. It lies between Vaal and Orange Rivers, on a plain rising from 3,000 to 5,000 feet, with bluffs or slopes toward the rivers that border it, and dotted with kopjes or flat-topped hills. The prevailing religion is that of the Dutch Reformed church; while the Roman Dutch law has hitherto been in use. The Dutch Reformed church still preponderates in numbers, but there has been a great gain among other Protestant bodies and Roman Catholics since 1900, the aid formerly given by the Free State government to the first named body having been discontinued. Education is going steadily forward, fees having been entirely done away with in all elementary schools. A college, normal school, high school and many primary schools have been established, and education is compulsory, but little is being done among the blacks. Bloemfontein is the capital, with a present population of 38,-000. The undulating plains of the interior afford excellent grazing. The colony is rich in coal-mines; while in and on the borders are valuable diamond mines, the yield from which, as well as of garnets and other precious stones, has been phenomenally large. Some gold has been found. Rubies, sapphires, emeralds and other precious stones are reported from Hope Valley. There is now a government department of mines. The imports are chiefly wearing apparel, cottons, blankets, food and drink^ woodenware

and hardware. The exports are largely wool and diamonds, most of them going to Cape Colony. The colony belongs to the South African customs-union. The Free State kept no statistics regarding mining. A railway, constructed by the Cape government, connects Orange River (at Norval's Point) with the capital as well as with the Transvaal, lying north of it. The length of the railway lines in the colony is about 900 miles. There are 2,143 miles of telegraph lines, giving communication with Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal and Basutoland. See Transvaal, Cape Colony and Boer War.

Orang-Utan or Orang-Outang (-răng' ō-tng'), one of the higher apes, found in the swampy forests of Borneo and Sumatra. With the chimpanzee and the gorilla, it approaches closely to man in structure. A full-grown male reaches a height of four feet and four inches, but the outstretched arms cover seven feet eight inches. The body is bulky and covered with long, red-

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orang-outang

dish-brown hair. The legs are short, but the arms are so long as to reach the ankles when the animal is erect, and, in walking the knuckles are placed on the ground. Orangutans, however, are awkward on the ground and prefer the trees, where they can travel five or six miles an hour, without special effort, by swinging along on the branches, which they grasp mainly with their hands. They feed on fruits and succulent shoots, being strictly vegetarian in their diet. They get most of their food on. the trees, but go to the ground forwater. They live in pairs. As a rule they are peaceable, but when disturbed are reputed fierce. They retire to rest at sundown in nests of broken boughs 20 or 30 feet above ground. In captivity they are not so active and intelligent as the chimpanzee. See Ape.

Or'ato'rio, a sacred story set to music and accompanied, as in the opera, with a chorus and orchestra or band of musical instruments, but without the use of scenery or costumes or acting. Its name is derived from the oratory of the Church of Santa Maria