OREGON                                                     I392                                                   ORESTES

irrigated districts. In the markets of the world Oregon is famed for her fruits, especially for apples, strawberries and prunes. The fruitcrop of 1907 brought to Oregon $4,-000,000. Of the live stock, cattle, sheep and hogs are raised, though the largest herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are found in Eastern Oregon.

Manufactures. The principal manufactories are woolen-mills, flour-mills, paper-mills, fruit-canneries, fish-canneries, creameries, condensed-milk factories and coffee and spice mills. The dairy product for the year 190; amounted to $12,000,000. Salmon is the principal fish that is canned here, and t1"e value of the output of the canneries for 1907 amounted to $3,000,000.

Commerce. The largest sea-port is Portland, situated on Willamette River about 12 miles from its mouth. Other ports with good harbors are Astoria, Tillamook, Ya-quina, Waldport, Florence, Marshfield, Ran-don, Port Orford and Gold Beach. The exports comprise lumber, wheat, oats, barley, hay, wool, hops, prunes, apples and strawberries. Portland leads the ports of the world in the export of lumber, and stands first on the Pacific Coast in the exportation of grain. Astoria, the oldest town in the state, has a beautiful harbor, and is situated near the mouth of the Columbia. Its principal industries are fishing, salmon canning and lumbering. The principal inland cities, Oregon City, Salem, Albany, McMinnville Corvallis, Eugene, Roseburg, Ashland, The Dalles, Pendleton, La Grande, Baker City, Prineville and Klamath Falls, are good manufacturing points, and are shipping centers for the products of the surrounding country. The ports of Oregon receive ships from all parts of the world, and her trade with the Orient is increasing each year.

Transportation. The principal railways are those of the Southern Pacific Company; the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company; and the Astoria and Columbia River Railroad Company from Portland to Astoria. The Portland and Seattle Company, a company controlled jointly by the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Companies, are constructing a line down the northern bank of the Columbia and across this river at Vancouver. Each of the first two companies has lines extending into the interior. The Willamette is navigable nearly 200 miles, and the Columbia to Lewiston, Idaho, about 650 miles, though broken by rapids.

History. In 1792 the Columbia was first entered by Captain Gray who gave the river its name. It came into the possession of the United States in 1803. Oregon meant all the northwest country until 1853, when the northern and southern boundaries were fixed. The American Fur Company founded Astoria in 1811. In 1859 the state was created with its present boundaries. The United States claimed this country by reason

of Captain Gray's discovery, and the claim was strengthened by the Lewis and Clark exploration in 1805. In 1849 Oregon was organized as a territory. Prominent among early settlers were Nathaniel J. Wyeth, Dr. John McLaughlin,, Dr. Marcus Whitman (183Ŏ) and Jason Lee (1834).

Education. The school-district, governed by an elective board of from three to five directors, is the unit of the school system. This board manages the finances of the district, and elects the teachers. The districts of a county have a supervising officer called the county superintendent, while at the head of the system is the state supei"intendent of public instruction. The funds for the public schools come from the interest on the irreducible school-fund, a county tax and a district tax. The irreducible school-fund brings in about $250,000 annually. The county-tax must be such a sum as will produce at least $7.00 per capita for children of school-age. The district-tax is a special tax on the property of the district by a vote of its taxpayers. The schools have a uniform, state course of study. Eight years are given to the grammar grades and four to the high school. The course for the high school is planned to give a well-rounded education, in case the pupil is not able to study in a university or college. At the same time it correlates well with the courses offered in the state university and the agricultural college. The University of Oregon is open to all boys and girls who have completed an accredited high school course, and it offers courses in all departments of university work. Oregon Agricultural College offers courses in agriculture, engineering, horticulture and dairying. Besides the public schools, there are a number of private colleges and secondary schools. Notable among these are Albany, Columbia, Dallas, McMinnville and Pacific Colleges and Pacific and Willamette Universities. There are four state normal schools. The text-books for the Oregon schools are chosen by a state commission and are used for a period of six years. A compulsory educational law provides for truant officers who must check over the census and attendance rolls once each month with the teachers, and must see that every child between nine and 14 is in school. Severe penalties for teachers and truant officers are provided for neglect of this duty. The secretary of the state library-commission has charge of the school libraries. Each county must levy a tax for library purposes amounting to 10 cents for each child of school-age. The secretary has charge also of 50 traveling libraries, of which the total number of volumes now amounts to 2,750.

Orestes ( ˘-res'tēz ), a Greek hero, the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. His father was murdered by Clytemnestra and her lover Ăgisthus, but Oiestes was saved by Electra, his sister, and brought up at the