generally are near water with the entrance under the water; sometimes a nest is found under a hollow tree, again in a cave well up a bank. The sea-otter is a related form but belongs to another genus. It is a true child of the ocean; "born at sea, on a bed of kelp, and literally rocked in the cradle of the deep." It is one of the most valuable of fur-bearing animals — a single skin will bring over a thousand dollars. It was once abundant • in the Pacific from California northward, but now is very rare save about the Aleutian Islands, where at this late day it receives rigorous protection. It is about four feet long, its fine dense fur of a lustrous black. See Hornaday: American Natural History; Stone and Cram: American Animals.

Ot'terburn, Battle of, "the hardest and most obstinate battle ever fought," according to Froissart, took place near Otterburn, a small village in Northumberland, England, about 16 miles south of the Scottish border and 32 from Newcastle. Douglas, with his Scottish army, carried away Hotspur's pennon from Newcastle, saying that he would plant it on his own castle. "You shall not carry it out of Northumberland," swore Hotspur (Harry Percy). So the Scots encamped on a slope near Otterburn to give him time to regain his pennon. Hotspur, with 8,600 men, nearly four times the bulk of the Scotch force, attacked their camp. Douglas, hewing the way before him with his mace, fell mortally wounded, anxious only to hide his death from his followers till they had won the victory, saying: "Long since I heard a prophecy that a dead man should win a field, and I hope in God it shall be I." The Scots gained the day, taking Harry Hotspur and his brother prisoners. The date of the battle is Aug. 19, 1388. The Scotch ballad of Otterburn and the English ballad of Chevy Chase tell the story of this battle. See White's History of the Battle of Otterburn and Percy's Reliques. See Ballads and Chevy Chase and Percy.

Ot'toman Empire. See Turkey.

Ottum'wa, la., county-seat of Wapello County, is on Des Moines River, 85 miles southeast of Des Moines. Surrounded by a fertile country, it has a large trade and manufactures agricultural implements, mining tools, iron and steel specialties. The city boasts of 40 churches, 14 schools, 10 banks and 60 factories. It is served by four railroads, and is in the heart of Iowa's coal-fields. Population 22,912.

Oudenarde (ou'den-ar'de), a town in Belgium on the Scheldt, 33 miles west of Brussels. It is noted as the scene of a famous battle, brought on by the efforts of the French to retake the city from Marlborough, who had captured it in 1706. It was the third of Marlborough's four great victories, and was gained on July 11, 1708.

Oudinot (oo'd'no'), Nicolas Charles,

duke of Reggio and marshal of France, was born at Bar-le Due, France, April 25, 1767. He was made commander of ten battalions, which became famous as Oudinot's grenadiers. He was at Austerlitz and Jena, and won the battle of Ostrolenka, Feb. 18, 1807. For his brilliant services in the Austrian campaign of 1809 he was made marshal of France and duke of Reggio. He was one of the last to leave Napoleon, but left him entirely, remaining on his estates during the Hundred Days. He was made -minister of state, commander of the royal guard and a peer of France after the second restoration. He died at Paris, Sept. 13, 1847. See Napoleon and His Marshals by Headley.

Ouida. See Rame, Louise de la.

Our Mutual Friend is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published in serial form and, with the last serial number in November of 1865, in book form. It is a story of London life in which some 50 characters are delineated. The story divides itself into three parts, in which John Harmon, Lizzie Hexam and Eugene Wrayburn, her lover, and two adventurers Mr. and Mrs. Lammle, are the respective centers of interest. These parts are connected by Mr. and Mrs. Boffin, the servants of John Harmon's father. The father is an eccentric old man, who, disinheriting his son, makes the Boffins his heirs. The son, after concealing his whereabouts for years, secures employment under the name of John Rokesmith as Mr. Boffin's secretary, who styles him Our Mutual Friend. In time he is recognized by Mr. Boffin who graciously turns his estate back to him.

Ou'zel, a popular name given to several birds, mostly of the thrush (Merulidœ) family. In Shakespeare and in Tennyson the blackbird is called an ouzel, but in America the name is for the most part restricted to small birds which look like land-birds but are aquatic in their habits. The American water-ouzel resembles a catbird in appearance, is solitary in its habits, and lives along the banks of dashing streams. It will surprise the spectator by dropping suddenly into a brawling mountain cataract, and then appear swimming along thro ugh the pools by the use of its wings or, it may be, running swiftly along the bottom. Its food is composed of small mollusks or aquatic insects and their larv, which it seeks among the stones at the bottom.

O'vary (inplants), the name of that bulbous part of carpels or pistils which certains

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