PANICLE

1417

PAPEB

give them the appearance of reptiles. The scales are formed of cemented hairs. In some forms the tail is longer than the head and body. They inhabit Asia and western Africa and vary in length from one to five feet. They are burrowing animals and feed mainly on white ants.

Pan'icle, an open spray-like cluster of flowers, consisting of a compound raceme chiefly branching below. See Inflorescence.

Pansy. See Violet.

Pan'theon, a temple dedicated to all the gods, has a great arched roof, lighted through one opening in the center of the dome. The Pantheon in Rome is the only ancient building that has been completely preserved. It (or, rather, part of it) was built by Agrippa in 27 B. C. It was consecrated as a church in 610, and is used as a burying place for eminent Italians. The Pantheon of Paris was built in 1764, and is called the Church of St. Genevieve. It also is used as the mausoleum of famous men.

Pan'ther, the name loosely applied to the leopard, but more correctly used for the stouter varieties of that animal. The puma is also called panther in America.

Paoli (p'-l), Pasquale, a Corsican patriot, was born in Corsica in 1726; was taken to Naples by his father in 1739; but returned to his own country to become the leader of the struggle for independence in July, 1755. He would have suceeded but that Genoa sold Corsica to France in 1768. He held out for a year against the French, but on being defeated escaped to England, where he was given a government pension. On the breaking out of the second revolution in France he returned, became lieutenant-general and governor, and set on foot a second rebellion, hoping to form a union with England, but failed and returned to England in 1796. He died.near London, Feb. 5, 1807. See Boswell's Account of Corsica.

Paper takes its name, properly, from that which was first used ia its place and from which it was first made — Egyptian papyrus (a. v.). It was first made by laying thin slices of the cellular tissue across others, the whole moistened with Nile water and pressed, then smoothed down with ivory or shell. In our 10th and nth centuries it was made of other fibrous matter. The Chinese Encyclopedia says that the Chinese first wrote on thin strips of bamboo board, but for 300 years before and after Christ silk-waste was used. The Chinese statesman, Ts'ai Lun, was the inventor of paper made of vegetable fiber. In A. D. 105 he had paper made of bark, hemp, rags and old fishing nets. The first manufacture of rag-paper in Europe was in Spain under the Moors in 1154,but soon afterwards it was made in Italy, France and Germany. It came into universal use in the 14th century. The vegetable fibers from which paper can be made are wood, bamboo, jute, straw, corn-stalk, flax and

hemp, besides linen and cotton rags foi white paper. The great bulk of the paper used to-day is made from wood, and of this the better grade is made by what is known as the sulphide process. It may be briefly described as follows:

The ground wood-pulp is made chiefly from spruce and has been saturated with sulphurous acid, though poplar-pulp is cooked in caustic soda. Then an oval shaped tub whose capacity is about 1,000 pounds is fed with one part of sulphite pulp and three of ground wood-pulp. A small percentage of some mineral; saponified rosin; coloring matter; and alum are added. This pulpy mass is thoroughly mixed, and then passes into a refining engine. After leaving the refiner, the pulp is screened. Then it is pumped on the paper-machine proper, having been so thinned that it behaves like a fluid. The paper-machine has a wet part and a drying part. The wet part forms the paper and gives it the consistency that makes it paper. The drying part increases this consistency, dries the paper and gives what is called surface. The liquefied pulp flows from a box at the head of the machine over an apron and upon an endless, horizontal, wire cloth moving forward continuously. The water in the pulp drains through the wire and the fibers settle on the wire. The fibers become so compacted that they are separated from the wire, and these compact sheets or felts are conveyed to presses, two or three in number, consisting of pairs of massive rolls. Between these passes the paper, supported, however, by endless felts of wool, because the paper can not yet support itself. After this it can, and enters the driers, 20 or 30 cylinders three or four feet in diameter, one horizontal tier of driers being above the other. The paper passes partially round each drier, going alternately from one to the other tier, and being heated by the steam that is constantly passing through the inside of the cylinders. The paper usually reaches the driers with 70% of water in it still. Then it goes through the calenders, — rolls with polished surfaces. These rolls are arranged in a stack, and the paper goes in at the top and passes out at the bottom to the reel. This, practically, is an ironing process, the regulation of the pressure between the rolls giving the paper whatever surface is desired. Light pressure leaves the surface open, but heavy pressure closes the pores. When the paper leaves the calenders and is reeled, it is considered made.

The first mill in the United States was built in 1690 where Philadelphia now stands, and to-day the paper output in America is the largest in the world, being about 2,000,-000 tons a year. Census-Bulletin 80 gave the following figures for 1905 : Capital invested $277,444,471; cost of materials $111,-251,478; value of products $188,715,189;