PARAFFIN

1419

PARAGUAY

Adam and Eve. Satan undertakes this task, and, since God permits, he succeeds, although man is warned of the danger by Michael, the archangel, who relates to Adam and Eve the history of Satan and his expulsion from heaven. Adam and Eve eat the apple and fall into wretched quarrels and despair. They are expelled from Paradise, but are comforted by the revelation of the redemption of man through Christ. The poem contains many elaborate and abstruse theological discussions, and is characterized by the most erudite scholarship. These qualities make it tedious to many, but, on the other hand, majestic descriptions and brilliant imagery abound, and the grandeur of the style is everywhere sustained. Matthew Arnold commends it to English readers as our best example of the classic or grand style.

Paraffin (păr'f-fn), the name given by Baron Reichenbach to a white, transparent substance obtained by him from wood-tar in 1830. Christison, an English chemist, obtained the same substance about the same time from petroleum and called it petroline, and Dumas, the French chemist, obtained it from coal-tar in 1835. Not until 1850, however, was it manufactured, and it is now used almost entirely for the making of candles and in some branches of the arts and surgery. It is made largely from petroleum shale by the following process : The shale is broken and placed in a retort, is then distilled and treated with chemicals, after which it is cooled. The paraffin separates as a solid, and the heavy oil mixed with it is pressed out. Then the crude paraffin is treated with naphtha, and the naphtha removed by further pressing after it has cooled. The paraffin is then melted and allowed to run through filters into convenient shapes. Paraffin is obtained also from mineral wax a.d from the higher boiling portion of ordinary petroleum (a. v.).

Paraguay {pă'ră-gwī or par' -gwa), a republic of South America, is divided by the river of the same name into eastern Paraguay or Paraguay proper and western or Chaco Paraguay. The eastern part is bounded on the north by Apa and Estrella Rivers, on the east by Amanbay Mountains and Parana River and on the south by the same river. The boundaries of western Paraguay have not been fully determined. The total area is about 98,000 square miles, and the population, made up of white descendants of the Spanish, of 50,000 Indians, of negroes and of mixtures of all, is

63i,347-

Surface and Climate. The Amanbay range runs north and south and divides the basins of the Paraguay and Parana, whose small tributaries frequently, overflow. The northern portion of the country is hilly, broken by palm-dotted plains, but the southern part is one of the most fertile

regions of South America. The climate is semitropical. The summer months of December, January and February have a mean temperature of 80.560, autumn (March, April and May) 72.230; winter (June, July and August) 64.70; and spring (September, October and November) 72.70. Rainfall is abundant, averaging 52.44 inches at Asuncion, and is heaviest during the summer.

The Paraguay Central, 155 miles long, is the only railway. Parana and Paraguay Rivers, with their interlines, afford water transportation from all parts of the country to the sea. Asuncion enjoys direct communication with France, and a Buenos Aires-New York steamship line provides monthly service from Buenos Aires to Asuncion and is about to extend it to Matto Grosso in Brazil. There are 1,130 miles of telegraph.

Cities. The chief cities are Asuncion, the capital, chief port and commercial center, population 60,259; Villa Rica, population 25,000; and Concepcion, population 15,000.

Resources. Paraguay has a wide area of rich agricultural land, producing corn, coffee, rice, cocoa, indigo, tobacco, manioc and sugarcane. The great forests furnish logwoods, india-rubber and yerba mat, a shrub known as Paraguay tea, which is in general use in South America; also a great variety of woods, many of which are exported. On the grazing lands there are 2,743,665 cattle, 214,060 sheep, 190,416 horses, mules and asses. The 1905 record shows total exports of $5,232,770 during the year. There are deposits of gold, copper, iron ore and other minerals, but they have not been developed.

Government. The president is elected for four years and is ineligible for a succeeding term. There are two houses of Congress, a cabinet, a supreme court, two courts of appeals and minor courts.

History. The country was discovered by Juan Diaz de Solis in 1515, and the first colony founded by Mendoza in 1535, who built Asuncion and subjected Paraguay to Peru. It fell into the hands of the Jesuits, who administered its affairs until 1768, when they were expelled. In 1810 it declared its independence and elected a dictator, who held office from 1814 to 1840. Under the new constitution of 1844 Don Carlos was elected president and was succeeded by his son in 1862. This son led the war with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, and was killed in battle, March 1, 1870. A new constitution, providing for two houses of Congress, was proclaimed on Nov. 25, 1870, upon which was begun the new presidential term of four years. At Asuncion there is, besides a state college, an agricultural school and model farm. See History of Paraguay by Washburn and Vincent's Around South America.