PARE

1421

PARIS

Pare (pd'ra'), Ambroise, the first practitioner of modern surgery, was born at Laval, France, abouL the beginning of the 16th century, and received his training at the Hôtel Dieu in Paris. In 1536 he joined the army, going to Italy as surgeon, and in a later campaign improved the treatment of gunshot wounds by tying the broken arteries, instead of burning them with a red-hot iron after amputation, and made many other changes. In 1552 he became surgeon to Henry II, and afterwards to Charles IX and Henry III. His principal writings,'Five Books of Chir-urgy, have been a great aid to modern surgeons. He died at Paris, Dec. 22, 1590. See his Life by Paulmier.

Parenchyma (pā-rĕW-kï-má), the tissue in plants whose cells have thin walls, their three dimensions being approximately equal. They are the working-cells of a plant, as distinct from the mechanical tissues. Parenchyma is the original tissue of every plant, and by its various modifications new tissues arise. Ordinary pith is a good illustration of dead and empty parenchyma cells.

Par'ents' Meetings have been found necessary in order that the parent and teacher may intelligently cooperate for the education and welfare of the child. The movement in favor of systematic parents' meetings dates both in England and America from the beginning of the go's. At this time there was founded in London the Parents' National Educational League under the presidency of the Earl and Countess of Aberdeen; and shortly afterwards a class of mothers for purposes of child-study was established at Brooklyn Institute, New York. The National Congress of Mothers in Washington, D. C, gave a considerable impetus to the movement. The kindergarten is more forward than any other department in modern education in the work of encouraging mothers' meetings. Parents' associations for child-study are prominent in New York, Chicago, St. Paul, Detroit, St. Louis, Princeton, Streator and Pontiac ( the last three in Illinois), but perhaps in Chicago most of all. The Mothers' Congress of New York has an official organ called The Mothers' Voice. Some of the books which have been studied at parents' meetings in New York are Tracy's Psychology of Childhood, Sully's Studies in Childhood, Baldwin's Mental Development of the Child and the Race, Rousseau's Entile, Richter's Levana, Locke's Thoughts on Education, Spencer's Education and Adler's Moral Education. Dr. J. P. Haney has outlined the topics of medical talks suitable for mothers' meetings. It should perhaps be added that, although parents should no doubt learn something of scientific method in education, yet they may do well on many occasions to continue to adopt the traditional American let-alone policy with their children and to trust in a measure to child-nature.

It is here that the parent may at times be wiser than the teacher.

Par'is, the capital of France and the second city in Europe, is situated on the Seine, about no miles from its mouth. It is the seat of the French senate and chamber of deputies, the executive of the president of the republic and the ministry and the legations of the foreign nations. The local or civic administration is the municipal council of Paris, a body of 80 members. It is the center of a network of rivers, canals and railroads. It is divided into two parts by the river, and surrounded by a range of hills from two to five miles distant. The fortifications consist of a rampart over 22 miles in length, with 57 gates, which it took 20 years to build, and beyond are 16 forts. The houses are built of a light-colored limestone, six or seven stories high, each floor making a distinct dwelling. Some of the finest streets are Rue de Rivoli, Rue de Faubourg, St. Honoré and Rue Royale. The boulevards, broad streets extending in a semicircle on the right side of the Seine, are lined with trees, seats and stalls, while restaurants, shops and places of amusement succeed each other for miles. The city has many beautiful squares, called places, among the finest being the Place de la Concorde, the Place de la Bastille, Place Vendôme, Place de l'Étoile, Place de l'Opéra and Place Royale. In Place de la Concorde is the obelisk of Luxor, brought from Egypt, 73 feet high and covered with hieroglyphics. Here also was the site of the guillotine during the Revolution of 1789. On Place Vendôme stands Napoleon's column of victory. There are a number of fine triumphal arches in Paris: the Porte St. Denis, erected by Louis XIV, is adorned with bas-reliefs representing his victories, and the Arc de l'Etoile (Arch of the Star), begun by Napoleon in 1806 and costing $2,000,000, has the names of 384 generals and 96 victories inscribed on its walls. Ten avenues lead from this arch, one of them, the Avenue Bois de Boulogne, bordered by gardens and leading to Bois de Boulogne Park, considered one of the finest streets in the world. Another fine avenue, more like a park than a street, is the Champs Elysées (Elysian Fields). Other noted avenues are Boulevards St. Michel, St. Germain, Haussman and Sebastopol; while other prominent buildings are the Hôtel de Ville, Hôtel des Invalides, Palais de Justice, Palais Royal, Palais Bourbon, Palais de Luxembourg and the Palais de l'Elysée, the latter the presidential residence.

The Seine is crossed by over 30 bridges, which communicate with spacious quays planted with trees, affording fine walks along the banks of the river. Of these bridges the recently-constructed Alexander III bridge cost over $1,000,000.

The Louvre, the finest modern palace in Paris, is built on the site of an old castle of