west. It has a black throat, a noticeable white crescent on each side of the throat and a long drooping plume extending backward from the head. A smaller bird, the valley quail or valley-partridge, the most common June bird of California, is found also in Oregon, Nevada and elsewhere in the west. It dwells high up in the mountains as well as down in the lowlands. Though not gaudy its coloring is rich, and it wears a black plume that curves forward from its head in most jaunty fashion. In portions of Texas, New Mexicto and Arizona may

be found Mearns' partridge of Mexico, very striking in appearance, large white spots on its sides, its head adorned with bars of black and white. See Bob-White. See Hornaday's American Natural History and Chapman's Bird Life.

Pas'ade"na, Cal., a charming residence city and tourist resort, is 10 miles east of Los Angeles at the foot of the Sierra Madre. This city is unique in beauty of situation, and, as it escapes the ocean fog, its climate is delightful. It attracts thousands of visitors. Its beautiful residence, parks, churches, schools and hotels are greatly admired. In addition to its excellent public school system Throop Polytechnic Institute, a school of manual and technical instruction, pr^-'des for higher education. Population' 3°>29I-

Pascal (pas kal) Blaise, a great writer and deep thinker of France, was born on June 19, 162^ in Auvergne. Before he was 16 he wrote a treatise on conic sections that still form-" the basis of the modern treatment o:' he subject. He published his Nouvelles Experiences sur le Viae in 164 7, and next year made his famous experiment in atmospher c pressure. Besides this, he invented a calculating machine. His best known work 's entitled Pensées (Thoughts) sur la Religion. He died at Paris, Aug. 19, 1662. See Tulloch's Pascal in Foreign Classics Series.

Passa'ic, N. J., a city, lies on Passaic River, 11 miles from Jersey City. It has foundries and print works and manufactories of woolens, shoddy, whips, chemicals «ad india rubber. Population 54,773-

Pas'samaquod'dy Bay opens from the Bay of Fundy on the North American coast between Maine and New Brunswick at the mouth of St Croix River. It is about 15 miles long by 10 wide, and hemmed by islands that make an excellent harbor.

Pas'sion Flower, a species of plant almost exclusively found in the warmer parts of America, has a flower, shading from purple into 1'ght heliotrope of five parts, with narrow lines of white from the edge of the petals meeting at the center. It received its name from the early Spanish settlers, who saw in it the crown of thorns and the five marks of the wounds of the Lord. It is a shrubby, climbing plant with lobed leaves, and some species are cultivated for the fruit, particularly the sweet calabash of the West Indies, the root of which is poisonous and acts like morphine. The roots, leaves and flowers of some species are used as medicine.

Pass'over, an annual feast of the Jews, an account of whose origin is given in Exodus xii, is the feast of unleavened bread, and probably originated when the Jews were a wandering tribal race and offered thanks for the year's prosperity (Gen. iv: 4). With the settlement of the Jews in Canaan, the feast and sacrifice became a fixture of the harvest time in the spring, when, after the offering of the first sheaf, the people enjoyed their corn without waiting to have their bread leavened. The celebration is accompanied by many rites spoken of in Chronicles, Ezra, Psalms cxin and cxvii, I. Cor. v: 7 and John xix: j6. See Well-hausen's History of Israel.

Pass'port is a paper given by a government to an individual authorizing him to leave the country or allowing him to travel through or reside in it, affording the traveler protection. The rule has become somewhat relaxed of late, but Russia and Turkey still insist on them, while Germany requires a passport from a foreigner who wishes to reside in one place for any period of time. In England and the United States no passports are required, but they may be obtained as a precautionary measure.

Pasteur (päs'ter'), Louis, a distinguished French chemist and biologist, was born in the department of Jura, Dec. 27, 1822. He graduated (D. Sc.) from the Ecole Normal in 1847, and, after holding several teachin ' positions became professor of chemistry ai the Sorbonne in 1867. He began as a chemist, but turned into microscopical work, especially along the line of bacteriology, and also ranks as a biologist. He made many discoveries of especial benefit to mankind. About 1857 he showed fermentation to be due o the growth of micro-organisme. In 185c he engaged against Pouchet in the controversy on the spontaneous generation of life, and by public experiments showed the falsity of Pouchet's position, and

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