PATTON                                                     1430                                                           PAUL

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those in the United States, and there and at Paris and St. Petersburg, and wherever she sang, she was received with great enthusiasm. Her marriage in 1868 to the Marquis de Caux ended in divorce in 1885 and in 1886 she married the tenor singer, Ernest Nicolini. His death occurred in 1898, and a year later she married Baron Cederström, the Swedish nobleman. In 1903-04 this successful queen of song made a farewell tour of the United States. She resides in her Welsh home (Craig-y-nos) near Swansea.

Pat'ton, Francis Landey, an American clergyman and educator, was born in Warwick Parish, Bermuda, Jan. 22, 1843, and educated at Knox College, Toronto. He graduated at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1865. He received the degree of D.D. from Yale in 1888 and that of LL.D. from Harvard in 1889. He was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry on June 1, 1865, and was pastor in New York City, Nyack and Brooklyn in succession. He became a professor in what now is McCormick Theological Seminary in 1872, where he remained nine years. In 1881 he was elected to a chair in Princeton Theological Seminary and in 1888 to the presidency of the University of Princeton. In 1902 he resigned this office and became president of Princeton Theological Seminary. His published work embraces Inspiration of the Scriptures and Summary of Christian Doctrine.

Paul was the name of five Popes, of whom Paul I and Paul II were unimportant

Paul III (Alexander Farnése) was born in Tuscany in 1468, and elected pope in 1534. Though ambitious to advance his family, making cardinals of two grandsons while they were boys, he was a wise ruler and surrounded himself with good cardinals. His bull or decree of excommunication against Henry VIII of England, issued in 1538, and the one forming the Order of the Jesuits are the most important edicts of his reign. He supported Charles V in his struggles against the Protestant League in Germany. He died suddenly, Nov. 10, 1549. See Lives of the Popes by Ranke.

Paul IV (Qiovanni (jō-vän''nĕ) Pietro (pĕ-ā'trō) Caraffa) was born at Naples in 1476. He became pope in 1555. He was strict in the punishment of heresy, establishing a censorship to examine books, and


was the first to issue a. list of prohibited books. He was thoughtful of the poor and just in his government, even banishing his own nephews from Rome on account of their evil conduct. He became involved in quarrels with Emperor Ferdinand, Philip II of Spain and Cosmo, grandduke of Tuscany. His strength giving way, he died on Aug. 18, 1559. See Lives of the Popes by Ranke.

Paul V (Camil'lo Borghese) was born at Rome in 1552. He was nuncio or representative of the Roman church at the Spanish court and a cardinal under Clement VIII. In 1605 he became pope. His rule was vigorous, made memorable by his long conflict with Venice on the claim that the clergy should not be liable to trial by the common courts. The dispute was settled in 1607 by the help of Henry IV of France. Paul improved P.ome by new public works, the preservation of antiquities and the establishment and renewal of museums, libraries and charitable institutions. He died on Jan. 28, 1621. See Paul the Pope and Paul the Friar by Trollope.

Paul, Herbert, English historian and man of letters, member (since 190Ŏ) of the British Parliament for Northampton, was born in 1853. Early in his literary career he set himself to write a History of Modern England, beginning with the downfall of Sir Robert Peel in 184Ó — a work which was completed in 1906 and established his reputation as an eminent writer of the day. Of this work a noted critic has said that "whatever else this book does or fails to do, it establishes Mr. Paul". Mr. Paul then wrote a Life of Froude the historian.

Paul, Saint (originally Saul), the great apostle of the Gentiles, was born about 3 A. D., in Tarsus according to some, but according to St. Jerome, at Giscala in Cilicia, and taken to Tarsus in his infancy. He was a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, and received the name Saul, changed afterwards to Paul. He in some way also was a Roman citizen. He studied at Jerusalem in the famous school of Gamaliel, and makes his first appearance in history as a persecutor of the new sect of Christians. After the persecution at Jerusalem he set out for Damascus on the same errand. His conversion from a persecuting Pharisee to an apostle of the new religion, according to the account given in Acts, was effected by a blinding vision which outshone the Syrian sun and, he affirms, was a vision of the Jesus whom he persecuted. Cured of his temporary blindness, he spent three years in retirement in Arabia, and then at Damascus began his wonderful life of labor and suffering. He and Barnabas were the first foreign missionaries of the Christian church, sailing to Cyprus, to Perga and to Lystra, where Paul was stoned and left for dead. He sided with the Gentile converts in their struggle to free themselves from the