tianity and Science and Christian Belief and Life. He died on March 10, 1893.

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer, an American educator, was born at Billerica, Mass., May 16, 1804. She was a sister of Mrs. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Mrs. Horace Mann. She taught in Bronson Alcott's celebrated school and was one of the first to introduce the methods of Froebel into American schools and to use object-lessons in teaching. She was the first to establish a kindergarten in America. She published many works of an educational character, especially upon her favorite theme. Among her best-known works are The Kindergarten in Italy, Letters to Kindergarlner s and Guide to the Kindergarten etc. She died at Jamaica Plain, Mass., Jan. 3, 1894.

Peabody, Qeorge, an American merchant

■ and banker, was born at South Danvers, Mass., Feb. 18, 1795. When 11 he began his business life in a grocery, was next a clerk in Thetford, Vt., and afterwards partner of a dry-goods house in Georgetown, D. C. This business was removed to Baltimore in 1815, and had branches at Philadelphia and New York in 1822. In 1837 he settled in London, starting a banking house and making a large fortune, partly by investing heavily in government bonds during the Civil War. In 1851 he supplied the money needed to fit up the American department of the Great Exhibition at London. His fame rests, not on his wealth, but on his benevolence, as during his lifetime he gave away five and a half million dollars. Among these gifts were $10,000 to the Grinnell expedition to the north pole under Dr. Kane; $200,000 to found Peabody Institute at South Danvers", $50,000 to an institution at North Danvers; $1,000,000 to Peabody Institute at Baltimore; $25,000 each to Phillips Academy, Andover, and Kenyon College, at Gambier, O.; $150,000 each to Harvard and Yale; and $3,500,000 as a fund for educational purposes in the south.

• He also spent $2,500,000 in building model homes for the poor of London, of which in 1889 there were eighteen groups in different parts of the city, accommodating 20,000 people, while the rents and interest brought in $150,000 net profit. He was offered the title of baron by Queen Victoria, but declined, asking only for "a letter from the queen, which I may carry to America and deposit as a memorial of one of her most faithful sons." The letter was given with the queen's portrait, and both are deposited in Peabody Institute, South Danvers (now called Peabody in honor of its illustrious citizen). He died at London, Nov. 4, 1869, his body being sent to America in an English warship. There are statues of Peabody at London and Baltimore. See Life by Hanaford, and Beneficent and Useful Lives by Cochrane. Peabody, Mass., a city in Essex County, on the Boston and Maine Railroad, two

miles from Salem. It includes several villages, and is a manufacturing center of considerable importance. It has a good system of public schools. Peabody Institute with a library of about 40,000 volumes is here, as is Eben Dale Sutton Reference Library. Essex County Agricultural Society and Peabody Historical Society have their permanent quarters in Peabody. The latter in 1902 presented Peabody Institute with a small safe containing pictures of the town and articles written by the leading citizens and municipal officials, to be opened on or after June 6th, 2002. Peabody became a separate town under the name of Danvers in 1855. The present name was adopted in 1868 in honor of George Peabody who was born, and for some years lived there. The city government is administered by town-meeting. Population 15,721.

Peace River, a great river in Alberta, is formed by the junction of the Findlay and Parsnip in the center of northern British Columbia 1,000 miles to the west. It flows into Lake Athabasca. Peace River practically passes through the center of a vast district, and in the development of this will play an important part, since navigation is practically without a dangerous rapid or obstacle of any kind throughout its whole course, with the exception of that at Vermillion Chutes (five miles above where the Little Red River joins the Peace). It runs through a country of vast natural resources, as timber, asphalt, copper, salt and fish. The agricultural possibilities are unsurpassed in the northwest. The Hudson Bay Company has a large and excellently equipped flour-mill at Fort Vermillion, 670 miles north of the United States boundary and where there is a settlement of 500 people. Considerable wheat, oats and barley were grown there in 1906. Wheat has been successfully raised for over twenty years. Peace River Valley is a tract 75 miles in width on each side of the river and seven or eight hundred miles long. The soil is claimed to be as good as that on the Saskatchewan.

Peace Soci'eties, societies formed for the promotion of peace among the nations of the world. The first peace society in the world was founded in New York City in August of 1815. In other states similar societies were formed about the same time. The American Peace Society was organized in New York City on May 8th, 1828. Shortly after this the local society of New York ceased to exist. The first peace society in Europe was the English Peace Society founded in London on June 14th, 1816. Not many years after the organization of these first societies societies in one form or another with like puiposes were forming in all parts of practically all civilized countries; and it is largely to the influences these societies exerted that The Hague conferences owe whatever success they attained. One of