PENINSULAR WAR

*445

PENMANSHIP

only to breed. During the breeding-season they are found in great numbers on rocky islands far from habitations, as on the Falk-lands, Kerguelen Islands and rocky parts of New Zealand. There are about twenty species; the emperor penguin is the largest of them all, one specimen weighing 78 pounds. The emperor stands about three and a half feet high, has a coat that reminds us rather of fish-scales than feathers ; its front is white, head black, legs and feet leathered to the claws. It is thus graphically described by Hornaday: "In its erect posture its wings seem like arms, and its queer manner of talking, scolding and prying into man's affairs makes this bird seem more like a feathered caricature of a big, fat "mman being than an ordinary diving bird."

Penin'sular War. The quarrels between Chartes IV king of Spain (q. v.) and Ferdinand, his son, gave Napoleon an opportunity (1807) of interfering in the affairs of that country. In pursuance of a treaty with Charles (</. v.) he had sent an army into Portugal under Junot (a. v.), by whom Lisbon was seized, and the members of the royal house were obliged to flee to Brazil. For the pretended purpose of supporting Junot's army other French troops occupirJ Valladolid, Salamanca and other important positions in Spain, including Madrid where Murat was in command. Riots at Madrid, Toledo and other places caused the feeble king such alarm that he surrendered his crown to Napoleon, who at once bestowed it upon Joseph, his brother, then king of Naples. Joseph Bonaparte was accordingly proclaimed on July 24, 1808. But the Spanish provinces refused to recognize Joseph, and rose against the French in all directions. Assistance was supplied to the patriots of Spain and Portugal (q. v.) by Great Britain; and on the 12th of July, 1808, Sir Arthur Wellesley (afterwards Duke of Wellington) was sent to Portugal with 30,000 men. Wellesley defeated Laborde at Rolica and Junot at Vimiera, but Sir H. Dalrymple concluded the convention of Cintra with the French, who evacuated Portugal during September, 1808. Napoleon continued to send' large re-enforcements to Spain and came to Madrid to direct the operations of his forces; and when Wellesley was again sent out, in the spring of 1809, he found himself confronted by nearly 400,000 French troops, in eight army-corps, commanded by six marshals and by Generals Junot and St. Cyr. Wellesley at once proceeded to active operations; but it took a conflict of five years and many hard-fought battles to drive the French forces out of Spain. For his services Wellesley was created Duke of Wellington (q. v.), and received $2,500,000 from the English parliament. This war is sometimes called the War of Spanish (or of Portuguese) Independence.

Pen'manship. The art of handwriting as taught in the elementary school. Three typical systems of writing forms are taught

in American schools : the slantDescription images/pp0341 1, the

medial Description images/pp0341 2 and the vertical system

Description images/pp0341 3 . The slant system represents the system of writing taught up to the present school generation. It was superseded by the vt ■tical system largely because of ease of teaching and the lessened strain in reading. At present the medial system, which is halfway between the other two systems, is becoming prevalent. The main requirements in the teaching of penmanship are legibility, speed, ease and individuality. The usual demand has been for legibility and speed. Since the typewriter and the stenographer have come into widespread use, the insistence upon a very high degree of accuracy of form and rapidity in copying has decreased, and some individuality in writing for ease in identification of signatures etc. has become more important relatively. The teaching of penmanship proper usually begins in the second school-year, slightly before the first work in written composition. Some move-

Description images/pp0341 4

ment-exercises are sometimes given in the first year. The first work usually is with large forms upon the blackboard, the teacher setting the copy and the children imitating. Work in penmanship at the seats follows later, the pencil frequently preceding the use of pen and ink. In seat-work the copy either is set by the teacher or is taken from a printed copy-book. Much practice in the repetition of the copy follows. The exercises in the copy-books represent a gradation of difficulties from grade to grade. In some cases the copy is constantly kept before the child as a standard. In others it is used only for a short period, the child later comparing his own work with his image or standard of what the work ought to be. Dictation supplements the exercises, the final test being found in the penmanship that is seen in the child's compositions where the attention is mainly upon the expression of thought. One group of teachers strives for accuracy of form, at first letting the child write slowly, almost drawing the letters, and then gradually quickening the speed of writing. Where this is done, rapid movement-exercises with circles, ovals or other forms are given parallel to the slower writing of letters, words and sentences. Another group of instructors lays the emphasis upon rapidity of writing from the beginning, gradually striving for a more nearly correct form. Where individuality is a standard in the teaching of writing, the childern are first required to get correct form without any variation. When this is fairly-well achieved, such personal