PENNY                                                       1449                                                  PENSIONS

to West Philadelphia and entered on its modern era. Its medical school, founded in 1765, is the oldest in the United States. Lectures on law were given in 1790, but the present organization of the law-school dates only from 1850. In 1852 it was decided to establish a department of arts, manufactures and mining; professorships in civil engineering, geology, mineralogy and mining; and two regular courses in science. In 1874 this department was named Towne- Scientific School. Other departments consist of the college; the department of philosophy or graduate school; University Hospital; Wis-tar Institute (for anatomy and biology) ; the laboratory of hygiene; the departments of dentistry; veterinary medicine; archaeology; and physical education; the veterinary hospital; the library; and Flower Observatory. The university's college itself includes the School of Arts,Towne Scientific School and Wharton School of Finance and Commerce. The university in 1905 had 33 buildings, and these and the grounds were worth about $5,700,000. In 1910 the faculty numbered 500, the students 5,389 and the library 272,000 volumes. The productive funds amounted to $4,632,874, but in 1904 the total assets were $11,647,085 and the total income was $687,443.

Pen'ny, an English coin, one twelfth of a shilling in value, first mentioned in the laws of Ina, king of the West Saxons, about the close of the 7th century. It at that time was a silver coin, and weighed 22J grains, being about 1-240 of the Saxon pound weight. Halfpence and farthings were not coined in England till the time of Edward I, but the penny was indented with a cross-mark, so that it could easily be broken either into two or four parts. The penny steadily declined in weight until the reign of Elizabeth, when it was fixed at 7 23-31 grains or 1-62 of an ounce of silver, a value to which the copper pennies, first introduced in 1797, closely approximated. The present penny is made of bronze, and is of only half the value of the copper penny, for which it has been substituted. The American cent is often called a penny.

Penob'scot, the largest river in Maine. The west branch rises near the Canada line, and flows east and southeast to Medway, where it meets the east branch or Seboois River. Afterward its course is southwest to Penobscot Bay, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean on the southern coast of the state. The Penobscot is navigable for large vessels to Bangor, 60 miles from its mouth. Its upper waters are used for floating logs from the forests of northern Maine to Bangor and other points, where they are sawed into lumber. The length of the Penobscot is 300 miles, and it is the most important navigable stream in the New England states.

Pensacola, Fla. (pěn' să-kō' la), a city and port of entry, capital of Escambia

County, 250 miles from New Orleans, on the west shore of a deep bay opening into the Gulf of Mexico. Near by is the Pensacola navy-yard, with a marine hospital and barracks. The city has a large domestic trade in lumber, fish, naval stores, cotton, phosphate and coal. It has 11 public-school

Description images/pp0345 1

buildings, an opera-house, court-house and a state armory. Pensacola was settled by the Spaniards before 1700, occupied by the British from 1763 to 1781, and afterward, during the wars with Napoleon, taken from them by Andrew Jackson in 1814. In 1819, with the remainder of Florida, it became a part of the United States. Population 22,982.

Pen'sions, the regular allowances of money paid to individuals by a government in return for services, civil or military. Most European governments have both a civil and a military list; but in the United States military service alone constitutes a claim for pension. In general, pensions are granted only for active service in time of war and for injuries received during such service. Service-pensions were granted to all survivors of the Revolutionary War by act of 1818, to all survivors of the War of 1812 by act of 18 71, to the survivors of the Mexican War by act of i887andto Civil War veterans in 1904. But the bulk of United States pensions are invalid-pensions for wounds or disability incurred in service. These extend to the widows and children under 16 years of those who died from such wounds or disease; or, in the event of there being no such surviving widow or children, then to dependent fathers, mothers or minor brothers and sisters of men so dying. The pensions, which range from $24 to $2,000 a year, are graded according to the rank of the pensioner and the degree of his disability. Thus, where the regular aid or attendance of others is required, from $50 to $72 a month is allowed; where the pensioner is incapacitated for manual labor, $30 a month; for the loss of a hand or foot or total deafness, $30 a month; for the loss of both feet or hands or both eyes, $72 a month; and for amputation at the shoulder or hip joint, $45 a month.