PETER, ST.

1461

PETIOLULE

culminated in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-8 and the complete establishment of Servian independence. After a period of roving he went to Montenegro and in 1883 married the Princess Zarka, the oldest daughter of Prince Nicholas. This marriage eventually served to connect him both with the Russian and the Italian court. Princess Zarka died in 1890, and Peter went to Geneva, Switzerland, to put his children in school, where he lived quietly until 1903. On June nth, 1903, the king and queen of Servia (q. v.) were murdered. Peter was elected king four days later. He entered Belgrade, after an absence of forty years, on June 24th, and on the following day took the oath of office and assumed the regular royal rights and duties. He received his crown on October 9th, 1904.

Peter, St., one of the twelve apostles of Jesus, was born at Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee, but during the public ministry of Jesus had his home at Capernaum, where he appears to have lived with Andrew, his brother. His original name was Simon, to which Jesus added Cephas, from the Syriac kcpha, a rock, the Greek word being petra, whence Peter. He was a fisherman, and was engaged in his daily work when Jesus called him and Andrew to be disciples, promising to make them "fishers of men." Peter undoubtedly was regarded by Jesus with special favor and affection. In many respects he was an ideal disciple, warmly attached to his Master and ardent, fearless and energetic in the service of the cause he had espoused. It is not without reason, therefore, that Matthew heads his list of apostles with "the first, Simon, which is called Peter." This position of leadership among the apostles Peter continued to hold. Peter was the first mover in the election of a new apostle in place of Judas Iscafiot; he was the spokesman of the other apostles on the day of Pentecost; and when Ananias and Sapphira were brought before the council, he was the judge who condemned them; and he was the first apostle to baptize a Gentile convert. Peter took an active part in the apostles' conference in Jerusalem, and at Antioch he labored in harmony with Paul for a time, but afterward arose the famous dispute between them, in which Paul says "he [Peter] was to be blamed " for separating himself from the Gentile converts and refusing longer to eat with them, lest he might offend certain Jewish converts. But Peter and Paul adjusted their differences, and Peter's references to Paul in his (Peter's) epistles are of the most appreciative kind. The history of Peter from this time rests mainly on tradition. It is generally believed that after remaining in Antioch for some time — according to Jerome and Euse-bius he was bishop there for years — his missionary labors extended to Pontus, Cap-padocia, Galatia, Bithynia and, some have

thought, even to Babylon. It is now generally conceded that he paid one or more visits to Rome and that he suffered martyrdom there. Tradition records that Peter was crucified with his head downward, he himself requesting this as being unworthy to be crucified in the same position as his Lord. Sienkiewicz makes him a heroic figure in Quo Vadis.

Pe'ter'borough, Can., has a population of 15,000. It is on Otonabee River, which furnishes electrical energy for numerous factories. Its normal school, collegiate institute and library are important educational features. It has an extensive plant for the manufacture of electric machinery and appliances and a large cereal-food establishment. There are summer resorts on the nearby Kawartha Lakes.

Pe'ters, Christian Henry Friedrich, a highly-distinguished American astronomer, was born at KoldenbŘttel, Germany, Sept. 19, 1813. After completing his course at the University of Berlin, he traveled for several years in Palestine and other countries in the east. He then came to the United States, and, after serving in the coast survey, was elected professor of astronomy at Hamilton College, New York, in 1858. Professor Peters took part in the observation of the solar eclipse of Aug. 7, 1869, at Des Moines, la., and was at the head of the party sent by the United States government to New Zealand to observe the transit of Venus on Dec. 9, 1874, His party obtained over 200 photographs of the transit, and he was able to measure the apparent diameter of the planet, thus determining its size more nearly than had ever been done before. He died at Clinton, N. Y., July 18, 1890.

Pe'tersburg, Va., the third city of Virginia, on the left bank of Appomattox River, 23 miles by rail south of Richmond. The falls above the city furnish water-power for foundries, cotton, flour and paper mills and tobacco factories. The ten months' siege of Petersburg was an important chapter in Grant's campaign against Richmond in 1864 Although attacked several times, it did not fall until evacuated by the Confederates in the spring of 1865. Population 24,12 7-

Pe'terson, Wiiliam, M.A., LL.D., C.M.G., principal of McGill University at Montreal since 1895, was born in Edinburg, May 29, 1856, and educated at the high school and university there and at the universities of G÷ttingen and Oxford. He has been given honorary degrees by the Universities of St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Princeton, Yale, Johns Hopkins and Pennsylvania. In addition to writing 7~he Relation of the English-Speaking Peoples Dr. Peterson has edited many Latin works.

Pet'iole, the stalk-like portion of a leaf, as distinguished from the blade. Leaves without petioles are said to be sessile. See Leaf.

Petiolule (pĕt'Ý-0-lŭl), in compound leaves the stalk-like portion of a leaflet, as distin-