forms rise from the sea-bottom like trees, with thick trunks, numerous branches and leaf-like appendages. One of the most common forms is the rockweed or fucus, whose forking body is full of swollen air-bladders. The noted Sargassum or gulf-weed is a mem-

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fucus or rockweed

The figure to the right shows the receptacle which contains the sex organs.

ber of this group. It is often torn from its anchorage by the waves and carried away from the coast by currents, collecting in the great sea-eddies produced by oceanic currents and forming Sargasso seas, as that of the North Atlantic.

Phaethon (ja'e-thon), "the shining one" in the writings of Homer and Hesiod, a frequent title of Helios the sun-god. In Greek mythology Phaethon also is the name of a son of Helios, famous for his unfortunate attempt to drive his father's chariot. Scarcely had the presumptuous youth seized the reins when the horses, perceiving his weakness, ran off and, approaching too near earth, almost set it on fire. Earth called upon Jupiter for help, and he struck down Phaethon with a thunderbolt. His sisters, who had harnessed the horses of the sun for him, were changed into poplars and their tears into amber.

Pha'Ianx, the ancient Greek formation for heavy infantry, was a series of parallel columns standing close one behind the other. The oldest phalanx was the Spartan, in which the soldiers stood four, six or more, generally eight, deep. The Macedonian phalanx was 16 men deep. The heavy-armed phalanx was ordinarily flanked by peltasts or light infantry, who usually fought with javelins and slings.

Phanerogams (făn'r--găms), a name commonly applied to the spermatophytes or seed-plants, but now passing into disuse. It was given in contrast tc cryptogams (which see), and means that the sexual reproduction is evident, the stamens and

pistils being mistaken for sexual organs. See Spermatophytes.

Pharaoh (ja'ro or fa'ra-o), the name or title given in the Bible to the monarchs of Egypt. Like Mikado and Sublime Porte, it means The Lofty Gate. Although the term is only an official title, it is generally used as if it were a proper name; and there has been great difficulty in determining the particular monarchs who pass under this title in the Old Testment.

Phar'isees, a Jewish sect or school distinguished for devotion to the Mosaic law and rigid observance of all rites and ceremonies of the Jewish church. The Pharisees believed in future immortality, while the Sadducees held that there was nothing in the Scriptures to warrant it. The Pharisees held all the traditional ordinances in equal reverence with the Mosaic institution, but the Sadducees rejected many traditional observances or varied them according to the traditions of their own families. In general, the Pharisees administered justice in a much milder manner than the Sadducees, as the latter took their stand upon the strict letter and would hear of no mercy when the code was clearly violated. Out of the Pharisees arose the great doctors and teachers of the law, usually termed scribes, and to them the most important offices were intrusted by later rulers.

Pheas'ant, a long-tailed game-bird, related to the partridge. There are about forty species, mostly large birds, with brilliant colors showing metallic luster. Among their

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colors are gold, copper, scarlet, green and blue. They mostly are natives of Asia and live in dense woods. The so-called English pheasant was naturalized in Great Britain before the Norman conquest, and is bred in the game-preserves of Europe. It has been introduced into the United States. The male has metallic tints of blue and green on the breast. It is about three feet long, including the tail, which represents half the length. The copper-pheasant of Japan and the ringed-neck pheasant of China have been introduced into this country. The pheasants of China, Tibet, India and tb" Malay Archipelago often are gorgeous \u