PILLORY

I49I

PINE

lem. He passes Neighbors Obstinate and Pliable, Worldly Wiseman, Apollyon, the Valley of the Shadow of Death, the Slough of Despond, Doubting Castle and Giant Despair. The allegory in a simple and yet brilliant way presents the religious notions current among the common people of the time.

Pil'lory, an instrument for the public exposure and punishment of criminals. It consisted of a post and frame fixed on a platform. In the frame, which is attached to the post after the manner of a sign-board, are three holes through which the hands and head of the criminal are thrust, and out of which he cannot draw them. Standing behind the frame, he faces the gazing crowd. The exposure was a chief part of the punishment. At one time it was customary to shave the head wholly or partially. In the laws of Edmund I it was required so to construct the pillory as not to put the body "into peril." In the earliest pillory punishments they seem to have been confined to offenses not amounting to felony, called misdemeanors, as using deceitful measures and weights, libel, seditious writings. Later on, common scolds, brawlers and others were punished in this way. In the 17th and 18th centuries it came to be used for the punishment of political offenders. It was abolished altogether in Britain in 1837.

Pil'low, Giid'eon John'son, an American soldier, was born in Williamson County, Tenn., June 8, 1806. He graduated at the University of Nashville in 1827, and not long after was admitted to the bar. During the Mexican War he was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded the right wing at Cerro Gordo, where he was wounded. Being promoted for gallantry, he took part at Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, where he was again and more severely wounded. He practiced law in his own state until the beginning of the Civil War, to avert which he had proposed various compromises. But having entered the Confederate service in 1861, he rapidly advanced to the command of a brigade, and took part in the battles of Belmont and Fort Donelson. He was second in command when the latter was taken by the Federal troops, but made his escape. He afterwards served under General Beauregard in the southwest. He died in Lee County, Ark., Oct. 8, 1878.

Pi'lotj a person 'deputed to take charge of the course of a ship through a particular sea-reach or dangerous channel or out of or into port. He "stands at the wheel" we say. He must know how to manipulate the rudder and must be familiar with the channel. A steamboat neglecting to have a duly licensed pilot for a given port or stretch of water would forfeit its insurance in case of an accident.

Pinck'ney, Charles Cotes'worth, an

American statesman, was born at Charleston, S. C, Feb. 25, 1746. He took part in the earliest movements of the Revolution of 1776. In the war he did noble and conspicuous service. He was Washington's aide-de-camp at Brandywine and German-town. He saw much active service until 1780, when he was taken prisoner at the surrender of Charleston. A member of the convention that framed the constitution of the United States, he introduced the clause forbidding religious tests of qualification for office. In 1796 he was sent as minister to France, but the Directory refused to receive him, and he had to quit the country. War between France and the United States was threatening. The French intimated to Pinckney and his associates that a gift of money from the United States would avert war. Then Pinckney burst out in the famous utterance: "War be it then; millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute." He was thrice an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency. He died at Charleston, S. C, Aug. 16, 1825.

Pin'dar, the chief lyric poet of Greece, was born about 522 B. C. near Thebes, and died at Argos in 443 B. C. He began his career as a writer of choral odes at 20, and, soon reaching the highest rank, composed odes for men in all parts of the Hellenic world. Wherever he went he was honored and loved for his own sake as well as for his art. States vied with each other in doing him honor. Two conquerors of Thebes, Pausanias the Spartan, during the Pelopon-nesian War, and Alexander the Great left no other dwelling in Thebes standing than the house in which Pindar had lived. Of most of his poems we have fragments only. The Triumphal Odes, celebrating triumphs in the Olympian, Pythian, Nemean and Isthmian games are entire. Pindar treats the victory not as a mere incident, but as connected with the victor's whole life and history. He loves to dwell on the moral side of it; not merely on the bodily prowess, but on the temperance, love to parents or piety which secured the favor of the gods who granted success. The groundwork of his poetry consists in the legends which form the Greek religious literature.

Pin'dus Mountains, a range extending from north to south through the western part of Greece. At the southern end it attains a height of nearly 8,000 feet. The range connects with a range to the north and the name is sometimes used to cover this also, but originally this name was confined to that portion which separates Thes-sally from Epirus.

Pine, species of the genus Pinus, the largest genus of the conifers and distributed throughout north temperate regions. They are exceedingly important forest-trees, and are developed in a most magnificent way in