PIUS IX                                                      1498                                                   PIZARRO

Pius IX, originally Giovanni Maria Mas-tai-Ferretti, was born at Sinigaglia, Italy, May 13, 1792. Ih 1840 he became a cardinal, and on the death of Gregory XVI in 184 was elected to succeed him. He avowedly was the leader of the reform party. In March, 1848, he published his scheme for the government of the papal states by means of two chambers, one nominated by the pope and one chosen by the people. But the revolutionary fever of 1848 spread too fast for a reforming pope, and on Nov. 15 his minister was murdered in broad daylight. A few days later the pope himself escaped to Gaeta, from which he issued a remonstrance to the various sovereigns of Europe. In April, 184g, a French expedition was sent to Civita Vecchia, and in July General Oudi-not took possession of Rome, Pius himself returning and resuming his authority in the following year. After this his policy was the reverse of what it had been, and to the end of his life he continued an unyielding conservative. By a bull, issued in 1854, he decreed the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary as a doctrine of the church. But the most important event of his pontificate was the Vatican Council, at which bishops from all parts of the world assembled in December, 1869, and continued in session until July, 1870. This council first formally proclaimed the doctrine of the papal infallibility whenever the head of the church issues a decree on a subject of faith and morals to the universal church. For several years previous the pope's temporal authority had been maintained only by French bayonets. When the garrison at Rome was withdrawn, on the outbreak of the war with Germany in 1870, the soldiers of Victor Emmanuel entered Rome, and for the remainder of his days the pope lived a voluntary prisoner within the Vatican, only his spiritual power remaining. He died at Rome, February 7, 1878, and was succeeded by Leo XIII.

Pius X, originally named Giuseppe Sarto, was born of humble parents at Riese, Italy, on June 2, 1835. He pursued his elementary studies at Castel Franco near Venice, and was later enabled to continue h i s higher education elsewhere. He was consecrated to the priesthood at 23; and became vicar - general of Treviso in 1875; bishop of Mantua

in 1884; and cardinal in 1893. Shortly afterward he was made Patriarch of Venice, and on Aug. 4, 1903, he was elected pope. Free from ambition and filled with a passion for souls, he has a gift for organization and is full of zeal. His schools and his work for societies made him known throughout Italy. He is ardent for missions and preaching. His pontificate has been marked by his abolition of the veto of Austria, France and Spain oh the election of the pope; by his stanch advocacy of the Gregorian chant and opposition to secular music in the services of the church; and by the separation of church and state in France.

Pizar'ro, Francis'co, the conqueror of Peru, was the illegitimate son of a Spanish colonel of infantry, and was born about 1478. He never learned to read and write, but entered the army at an early age and served under Gonsalvo di Cordova, the Great Captain, in Italy. He also was one of Balboa's party that discovered the Pacific Ocean, and soon after this became a resident of the Isthmus of Panama, on the Pacific coast. From this point, in connection with Diego de Almagro, another old soldier, he started on an expedition for the conquest of Peru (a. v.) in 15 2 6. But not being strong enough to land and form a settlement, Almagro was sent back to Panama for re-enforcements, while Pizarro and part of the force remained on an island. But the governor of Panama refused to give further support to the enterprise, and sent vessels to bring back Pizarro and his men. The latter refused to return, and, drawing a line on the sand, called upon ali the men who wished to remain with him and share in the success of his enterprise to come over to his side. Thirteen men crossed the line, but the others returned. Soon after this the governor was induced to send one vessel to Pizarro, with which he explored the coast of Peru and collected information concerning the empire of the Incas. He then returned, and soon afterwards proceeded to Spain, where he applied for authority to undertake the conquest of Peru. On July 26, 1529, a commission was given him for his enterprise, with the title of captain-general, while Almagro received the title of marshal. Pizarro sailed from San Lucar on January 19, and from Panama the following year, with three vessels, containing less than 200 men and about 40 horses. Almagro was to follow with re-enforcements. Landing at Tumbez, the Spaniards commenced the march inland in May, 1532, and in November entered the city of Cajamarca. The Inca Atahualpa, being on his way to Cuzco, the capital of his empire, was captured and put to death by Pizarro, who first extorted eight million dollars for his ransom. Pizarro then marched to Cuzco, and set up the young

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