POMPEY'S PILLAR

1525

PONTIAC

to Rome he routed the remnant of the forces of Spartacus, and closed the Servile War. For this service he was awarded a triumph, while Crassus, who had defeated the main body of the forces of Spartacus, received only an ovation. Pompey was now the idol of the people, and, though legally ineligible to the consulship, he was chosen to that position, the senate removing his disabilities by a special act In 67-66 B. C. Pompey distinguished himself by clearing the Mediterranean of the pirates who had so long infested it ; and during the next four years he conquered Mithradates, king of Pontus; Tigranes, king of Armenia; and Antiochus, king of Syria. On his return to Italy he disbanded his army, and in 61 B. C. entered Rome in triumph for the third time. Pompey now sought to have his acts in Asia ratified by the senate and certain lands divided among his veterans; and on that body refusing to accede to his wishes, he, in connection with Crassus, formed the alliance with Julius Csar that is known as the first triumvirate. For a time they carried everything before them, and the political alliance was made closer and stronger by the marriage of Pompey and Csar's daughter Julia. In 58 Csar (q. v.) led his army into Gaul, and for nine years Pompey idly wasted time and energies at Rome. Jealousies arose between the two; and after Julia's death in 54 Pompey returned to the aristocratic party which desired to check Caesar's progress and, if possible, to strip him of his command. Civil war ensued, that ended with the battle of Pharsalia in 48 B. C, in which Csar was completely victorious over Pompey. Pompey fled to Egypt, and was treacherously murdered while ianding. But Csar was so sincerely grieved that he caused the murderers to be put to death.

Pompey's Pillar, a celebrated Corinthian column standing near Alexandria in Egypt, on an eminence south of the walls. Its total height is 98 feet 9 inches, the height of the shaft being a little over 70 feet. The Greek inscription on the base shows that it was erected in 302 A. D. by Publius, prefect of Egypt, in honor of Emperor Diocletian; and it is supposed to record the conquest of Alexandria by Diocletian in 296 A .D.

Pon'ce is an important city in Porto Rico, the capital of the province of Ponce. It is the second largest city on the island and the first in commercial importance. It is well-built and modern in appearance, with macadamized streets, public plazas, churches, hospitals, theaters, an asylum, municipal hall and a number of handsome residences. It also has a public library and a good school-system established since the American occupation, in connection with which is conducted an industrial school with about 300 students. The water-supply is excellent, brought by an

aqueduct three miles long. It has electric-light works and a street-car system which connects with Playa de Ponce, the port. The custom-house and the chief commercial houses are here. The harbor is large, is accessible to vessels drawing 25 feet, and is provided with wharves. The inhabitants engage chiefly in commercial and mercantile pursuits, but there are a few mechanical industries. The population in 1910 was 27,952 and that of the municipal district 55,477.

Ponce de Leon (pon'thdl-ŏn'), Juan, the discoverer of Florida, was born at San Servas, Spain, in 1460; was a court page; served against the Moors; and in 1502 sailed with Ovando to Hispaniola and became governor of the eastern part of the island. In 1510 he obtained the government of Porto Rico, and had conquered the whole island by 1512 when deprived of his post. He then, broken in health, set out in quest of the fountain of perpetual youth, and on the 27th of March, 1512, found Florida, landing a little north of where St. Augustine stands. He secured the appointment of governor of the country, and attempted to conquer his new subjects, but failed and lost nearly all his followers. He died in Cuba in July of 1521.

Pon'cho, an important article of male attire in Chile, the Argentine Republic and other parts of South America. It consists of a piece of woolen or alpaca cloth, six or seven feet long and three or four broad, with a slit of a foot or more in the middle through which the wearer passes his head, so that the poncho covers the shoulders and hangs down before and behind. Waterproof ponchos are worn by soldiers to a great extent, especially by cavalrymen.

Pon'doland, lying along the southeastern coast of South Africa, has been a part of Cape Colony since Sept. 25, 1894. It has an area of 3,918 square miles and a population in April, 1904, of 1,113 whites and 201,644 blacks, a total of 202,757.

Pontiac (pŏn'tĭ-ăk), chief of the Ottawa Indians, was born about 1712. In 1746 he defended Detroit, then a French settlement, against the attacks of hostile tribes, and he is also said to have led his warriors at Braddock's defeat in 1755. After the French had surrendered Canada, his hatred of the English prompted him to organize a combined attack upon all the English garrisons and settlements with a view to the extermination of what he called "those dogs dressed in red." The 7th of May, 17Ŏ3, was selected as the day for the attack, which in most places was successful ; but at Detroit, where Pontiac commanded in person, the commander was forewarned, and a five months' siege ensued. Pontiac resorted to every means familiar to savages to reduce the place, but was unsuccessful. Peace was finally made in 1766, Pontiac