self by the capture of New Madrid, Mo., and Island No. 10 in the Mississippi. On account of these successes he was transferred to the east and placed in command of the forces formerly under Generals Fremont, McDowell and Banks, each of whom had been outgeneraled and beaten by "Stonewall" Jackson. He was defeated at the second battle of Bull Run, Aug. 29-30, 1862. He then requested to be relieved, and was transferred to the department of the northwest. Pope attributed his defeat to Gen. Fitz-John Porter (q. v.). In 1882 Pope was made a major-general in the regular army, and retired in 1886. He died while on a visit to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Sandusky, O., Sept. 23, 1892.

Pop'lar, a species of the genus Populus, which belongs to the willow family. Characteristics are fluttering, shimmering leaves, whitish trunk, drooping catkins, cottony seeds. There are about 25 species native to' the northern hemis-phere, about half belonging to North America. The poplars may be divided in general into two groups: the balsam poplars with sticky buds and white poplars or aspens with buds not sticky. The common balsam poplar is P. balsam-ifera, sometimes also called tacaam-hac. One of its varieties (candicans) is known as balm of Gilead The common Cottonwood or Carolina poplar is P. monilifera. The black poplar of Eurooe (P. nigra) is familiar in this coun+ry through its variety italica, which is the Lombardy poplar, probably of Asiatic origin. The common American aspen is P. • tremuloides; the larger species being P. grandidewtata, which is in cultivation in its "weeping " forms. A very commonly planted wild poplar is the abele of Europe, P. alba, which has leaves white cottony beneath. The name of poplar or white poplar has also been wrongly applied to a tree in a very different group, namely, the great tulip-tree {Liriodendron), which is closely related to the magnolias. It is this tulip-tree which yields the so-called poplar lumber of commerce. Of recent years poplar-wood has become valuable for paper-making.

Pop'lin, a fabric of dry goods produced by weaving a weft of worsted yarn into a warp of silk. On account of worsted yarns being thicker than the silk, poplins always

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have a corded appearance. They may be either plain or figured, and used for dress goods, and for fine upholstery. The manufacture of poplin goods is of French origin, and was introduced into England and Ireland by Protestant refugees during the 17th century.

Popocatepetl (p-p-k-tă-pĕt'1), a volcano about 40 miles southeast of the City of Mexico. It rises in the form of a cone about 17,000 feet above the level of the sea. Although smoke issues, no eruption has taken place since 1540. It is frequently scaled, and in its crater (nearly a mile in diameter and about 1,000 feet deep) much sulphur is found.

Pop'py, species of the poppy family (Papa-veraceœ), but in the narrowest sense the name belongs to the genus Papaver, to which the opium-poppy (P. somnife-rum) of the Old World belongs. This poppy is largely cultivated in Europe and Asia for its capsule, from which the drug opium and the poppy-oil are obtained. It is a native of the Mediterranean region. Among the commonest native poppies are the argemones or prickly poppies, which are found m cultivation, and also occur over vast areas in the west. The common blood-root (Sanguinaria Canadensis) of the early spring also is a poppy, while the yellow or celandine poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum) is a well-known poppy of the early spring. The Californian poppy, with its pale, dissected leaves and long-stalked, brilliantly colored flowers, is Eschscholtzia Californica. It occurs in California in great masses, often giving most brilliant and variegated colors to a landscape. This poppy is extensively cultivated. Por'celain. See Pottery.

4)r'cupine, an animal with sharp spines uills among the hairs. The Old-World porcupines are ground animals and live in burrows ; those of the New World are mainly tree animals. They belong to the rodents or gnawing animals, feed upon bark of trees, and are often found around camps, attracted by salt and greasy leather or wood. The flesh is eaten by the Indians. The common Canadian porcupine has a stout


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poplar leaf and