PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA                 1535


French were driven out of Portugal and Napoleon's power was broken, John continued to reside in Brazil, leaving Portugal to be governed by English officers. This gave rise to such abuses and discontent that in 1820 a constitutional form of government was proclaimed at Lisbon in place of an absolute monarchy. John hurried home, but was immediately forced to sign the new constitution and to recognize the independence of Brazil. (See Pedro I). On John's death in 1826 Pedro IV organized" the government after the model of the English and renounced the crown in favor of his daughter. But in 1828 Miguel, Maria IPs uncle, gathered a number of the clergy, army officers and old nobility and was proclaimed king by the Cortes. Then ensued a period of great confusion and misrule; but in 1834 Miguel was overthrown and renounced all pretensions to the crown. Maria II remained queen until her death in 1853, when she was succeeded by Pedro V, her son. Upon his sudden death in 1861 he was succeeded by Dom Luis, his brother, who continued to reign until succeeded by Carlos I, his son, in 1889. Carlos (q. v.) was assassinated on Feb. 1, 1908, and was succeeded by Manuel II, his younger son. Although a young monarch, Manuel (q. v.) returned to the principles from which his father had departed. The dependencies still owned by Portugal include Macao in China; Timor in the Malay Archipelago; the Cape Verd Islands; and those of Sao, Thome and Principe; Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese East Africa ; and Angola. See Portugal, in the Story of the Nations Series, by Morse Stephens.

Portuguese ( pōftŭ-gēz ) East Africa (Estado d'Ajrica Oriental) is bounded on the north by German East Africa, on the east by the Indian Ocean, on the south by Natal and on the west by Lake Nyasa, the British Central Africa Protectorate, which runs into Portuguese territory from the north and east as that territory projects itself from the south and west into British Central Africa, by Rhodesia, Matabeleland and Transvaal. Lourenšo Marques is the capital. The territories directly administered by the state are divided into the districts of Mozambique, Tete, Quilimane, Inhambane and Lourenšo Marques. The Manica and Sofala region is under the administration of the Mozambique Company, under a royal charter running from 1891 to 1941, by means of which the country along the Zambezi is settling rapidly, convenient river transport and facilities for mineral exploitation being secured. The country between Rovuma and Lurio or Luli Rivers and Lake Nyasa is similarly served by the Nyasa Company. The principal imports are cottons, iron-work and drink; the leading exports rubber, certain ores, wax and ivory Gold has been found at Manica, coal in Tete. The Delagoa Bay railway, 347 miles long, runs for 57 miles through the

colony, on to Pretoria. The Beira railway runs 204 miles through the colony, and connects with the British line between Bula-wayo and Salisbury. Another, from Lourenšo Marques to Swaziland, is building, and part is already used. In 1903 there were 87 telegraph offices and 2,368 miles of line, Beira and Fort Salisbury, Lourenšo Marques and the Transvaal and Quilimane and Chi-romo being connected.

Portuguese Guinea lies on the Sene-gambian coast, enclosed entirely on the land side by French possessions, the Fuladugu country on the north and east and French Guinea on the south. It includes the neighboring archipelago of Bissagos, with the island of Bolama, on which is the capital of the same name, Bissao being the chief port. Its area is 4,440 square miles, and population (estimated) 820,000. The chief commercial productsare rubber, wax, palm-nuts, ivory, hides, oil and seeds.

Poseidon {pose'don), the Greek name for the mythical deity called Neptune by the Romans. He was said to be the son of Chronos (Time) and brother of Zeus. He was the husband of Amphitrite. As his portion of the universe he chose the sea; and to the Greeks, surrounded by the sea, he naturally figures much in literature and art. Under him are all other sea-divinities. The waves are his horses ; the trident his scepter ; and he is lord of storms and giver of calm. He usually is depicted riding in his chariot; Zeus, as sitting upon the throne.

Po'sen, a province of Prussia, bounded north by West Prussia, east by Poland, south by Silesia and west by Brandenburg. The province belongs to the great plain of northern Germany, and there are several lakes in the east. About 60 per cent, of the area (11,190 square miles) is arable land and under cultivation, the principal products being grain, potatoes and hops. Posen formed an integral part of Poland till 1772, when the districts north of the Netze were given to Prussia; to these was added, in 1793, Great Poland, except Masovia, the whole being incorporated under the name of South Prussia. In 1807 Posen was included in the duchy of Warsaw; but it was reassigned to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1814 under the name of the Grand-Duchy of Posen. Population 1,986,637, of whom 880,000 are Poles and 725,000 Germans.

Posen, the chief town of the province and a fortress of the first rank, is on the Warthe, 150 miles by rail from Berlin. In the 16th century it was an important trading mart, but before the end of the century it began to decline. The chief manufactures are artificial manures, agricultural implements, furniture and carriages. Population 117,034.

Post-Mor'tem Examination (from post, Latin for after, and from mors or death). Examination of the body after death is a duty which has to be performed by physi-