This page of the book is from "The New Student's Reference Work: Volume 3" by Chandler B. Beach, Frank Morton McMurry and others.
Vienna and 120 from Dresden. It has a picturesque appearance from the ^beauty of its site and numerous towers, more than 70 in number, which rise above the many noble palaces, public buildings and bridges. The fortifications have been gradually demolished since i860. The university, founded in 1348, received a new constitution in 1881, and has two co-ordinate sides or sections, one German and one Czech, the former with 150 teachers and 1,534 students and the other with 173 teachers and 3,875 students. There also is a government technical high school, with 1,300 students and German and Bohemian teachers. The city has been ravaged by wars, and here peace treaties have been enacted, notably that of 1635 between Ferdinand II and the Elector of Saxony and that of i860 between Prussia and Austria, ■when the latter ceded her rights in Schles-wig-Holstein and paid a war indemnity of $15,000,000. Population 228,645.
Prai'rie (French for meadow), the name by which the French explorers called the vast, fertile and treeless plains between Ohio and Michigan on the east and the desert-plains on the west. They embrace the western part of Ohio, nearly all of Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, the southern part of Michigan, the northern part of Missouri and parts of Wisconsin, Kansas and Nebraska. At Cairo, 111., they are from 400 to 550 feet above the sea, while near the center of the state they average from 650 to 750 feet, and in the northern part they are from 800 to 900 and even 1,000 feet. In southern Wisconsin the highest points are 1,100 feet above the sea, while near Prairie du Chien the prairies are only 400 feet high. In Iowa the prairie-tableland of Nicollet is from 1,400 to 1,500 feet above the sea, and divides the waters of the Missouri from those of the Mississippi. The prairies on the headwaters of the Illinois and Wabasn Rivers and south and west of Lake Michigan are called flat prairies, because very smooth and level, while the regions broken by depressions of streams are rolling prairies. Trees are seldom seen west of the Mississippi, and near the 98th meridian they disappear altogether. East of the Mississippi they are found in scattered groves along the streams or on low, rocky ridges. Prairies have almost no stones, the soil being a vegetable mold, black and very rich, producing wonderful crops of corn and wheat. The mound-prairies near Puget Sound and elsewhere along the Pacific coast are thickly studded with earth-mounds, from three to four feet in height and from 30 to 40 feet in diameter at the base. The vast plains between the 99th and 104th meridians and from Big Horn Mountains south to Llano Estacado are arid and partly desert, although by irrigation they have recently been developed into fertile fields.
Prai'rie-Dog, a species of marmot belonging to the ground-squirrel family. The ani-
mal is in no sense a dog. It inhabits burrows on the western plains and prairies, throwing up hillocks, which often cover a large territory, making a "village." On the approach of "travelers the animals are seen perched, often erect, on their hillocks. They are sociable little fellows, fond of company and of light and air. In search of food they will wander a short distance from home, but are ever on the alert to scurry back and dive down into safety. Their enemies include coyote, gray wolf, fox, badger, black-footed ferret and birds of prey. Prairie-dogs abound in Montana, Wyoming and western Kansas; are found from Texas, New Mexico and Arizona northward; and on the western slope of the Rockies in Utah and Colorado. They feed on buffalo-grass, and, when very numerous, work much harm; and are a pest to farmer and ranchman. There are two species, one living east and one west of the Rocky Mountains. They are about a foot long, and their fur is of a pale chestnut-brown color. Their bark is explosive and sharp, like a small dog's. They prefer sandy or gravelly soil, and make underground galleries of great extent. The small burrowing owl and a rattlesnake have been found in their burrows, but it is not now believed that this association is from choice, nor is it harmonious.
Pratt In'stitute was established in Brooklyn in 1887 by the munificence of Charles Pratt. Its object is to promote manual and industrial education and to instruct in science and art. The institution offers no work in academic subjects. In its field it is one of the most successful and excellent schools in the United States. It has the following departments : fine and applied arts, domestic arts, domestic science, science and technology, kindergartens and libraries. Diplomas are granted in the following courses, each of which requires two years: normal art, normal art and manual training, normal domestic science and normal kindergarten. Certificates are given for completed courses in general art, architecture, decorative and applied design, jewelry, chasing and enameling, general domestic arts, general domestic science, steam and machine design, applied electricity, applied chemistry and general library work. Evening work is also given, and certificates are granted for attainments in the following courses: chemistry, carpentry, machine-shop, fresco-painting, sign-painting, mechanical drawing, architectural drawing, ornamental design and modeling. The institution is well-endowed and possesses excellent workshops and laboratories. Special buildings are devoted to science and technology, electricity, chemistry, domestic arts and kindergartens. The work in art is conducted in the main building. There are an excellent gymnasium and a large library which is free to the public. A club-house for men