PUBLIC SCHOOLS

1559

PULLEY

considered as one of the earliest types of the modern scientific investigator. Pub'lic Schools. See Schools. Puck or Rob'in Oood'fellow, a familiar figure in the fairy world of English folklore, immortalized by Shakespeare in Midsummer Night's Dream. The name really is a generic term for a fairy. Although the Pucks are noted for mischievous tricks, they sometimes perform kindly, domestic functions; are small and dwarf-like in appearance; and are easily propitiated by offerings of cream and kindly epithets. The name Puck was adopted by an illustrated weekly published in New York.

Puebla (pwa'bla), the second city of Mexico, stands on a fruitful plain, 7,000 feet above the sea and about 100 miles by rail from the City of Mexico. It was founded in 1531, and is one of the handsomest cities in Mexico. During the French occupation of Mexico (1862-3) it was besieged by Maximilian's troops for two months, and taken by storm on May 17, 1863. Population 93,521. Puebla also is one of the inland states of Mexico, area 12,2^4 square miles, with a population of 1,021,133.

Pueblo {pwcb'lo), Col., a city, county-seat of Pueblo County, on Arkansas River, a little over 100 miles from Denver. Through its iron and steel industry it has become the second city in the state. Its smelters, rail-road-carshops, foundries and manufactories employ many. Among its manufactures are mining machinery, farming implements, furniture carriages and wagons. There are two systems of public .schools, one on each side of the river, good parochial schools and several libraries. Pueblo is an important railroad-center, having the service of five railroads. In 1890 a mineral palace was erected to hold a permanent exhibit of Colorado's mineral productions at a cost of nearly S 1,000,000. Pueblo has all the adjuncts of a modern city. Population 44,395-Pueblos (pweb'los) (Spanish pueblo, village), a semicivilized family of Indians in New Mexico and Arizona, dwelling in single habitations, which sometimes are large enough to contain a whole tribe. These buildings, which sometimes are five or six stories high and from 100 to 500 yards in length, are generally made of sun-dried brick; the ground-floor is always without doors or windows, entrance being effected by a ladder to the second story. Each family has a separate apartment, and there also are large rooms for general council chambers and for tribal dances. Under Roman Catholic missionaries the Pueblos are making steady progress in education and civilization, although they have grafted upon their Christianity many of their old pagan beliefs and customs, to which they cling. The cliff-dwellers doubtless were the ances-fors of the Pueblos, ruins of their dwellings being seen in the canons of the Rio Mancos,

Rio Plata and San Juan Rivers in southwestern Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. In these cliffs the strata of sandstone or limestone were separated by layers of soft clay which had worn away, leaving ledges of rock with caverns between. Upon these terraces are remains of clusters of dwellings, one ledge forming the floor and another the roof, the opening being faced so skillfully as to resemble the rock of the cliff. Some of these dwellings are now inaccessible. The marks of dangerous, doubling paths, hardly a foot wide, formerly used, can be seen on the canon walls. San Juan canon is shut in by walls of rock several thousand feet high, and one settlement is 1,000 feet above the Rio Mancos. Cliff villages or towns are found in the bottom-lands, with round stone towers near them, evidently used as watch towers.

Puer'to Rico. See Porto Rico.

Puff'balls', fleshy fungi related to the mushrooms, but in which the spores fully develop without being exposed. See Basidi-

OMYCETES.

Puget {pū'jet) Sound, a large inland sea northwest of the state of Washington, communicating with the Pacific by Admiralty Inlet and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. It penetrates far into the interior, and is everywhere navigable for the largest vessels, which, in most cases, can ride close to the shores and load and unload without wharves. Great quantities of pine and fir are shipped from the region, which is rich in timber. Seattle and Tacotna are the chief towns on the sound. See Seattle, Tacoma and Washington (State).

Pulas'ki, Cas'imir, a Polish count and general who fell in the American Revolutionary war, was born in Podolia, March 4, 1748. On account of the active part he took in the Polish war against Russia he was stripped of his estates and outlawed in the partition of Poland in 1772. In 1777 he offered his services to the American colonies in their contest against England, and for his gallant conduct at the battle of Brandywine was given a brigade of cavalry, which he commanded until March, 1778. In May, 1779, he entered Charleston at the head of Pulaski's Legion, a corps of lancers and light infantry which he had organized, and held it until the place was relieved; he afterward followed and harassed the British until they left South Carolina. At the siege of Savannah (1779), on the 9th of October, he fell in an assault at the head of the cavalry and died two days later.

Pul'ley, one of the mechanical powers much used in lifting stone and heavy timber. It consists of a wheel with a groove around its circumference, which revolves on an axis. The wheel, which Is commonly called the sheave, is placed in a mortised block of wood, which is pierced by the axle of the sheave. The cord which passes over