PUPA                                                    1564                                                PUTNAM

that power in 1849) is 97>2°9 square miles; | that of native states under British control, 36,226 square miles, with a population of 4,424,398. Population in the entire province 24,754,737. The whole of the northern part is traversed by spurs from the Himalayas which inclose deep valleys; but in the south the surface is broken by no elevations, except the Salt range, varying from 2,000 to 5,000 feet in height. More than half the population are Mohammedans. The Punjab is the country of the Sikhs.

Pupa (pū'pa), plural Pupae (pu'pe), stage between larva and adult in the metamorphosis of an insect. The pupa of butterflies is often called the chrysalis or chrysa-lid. Some insects pass the pupa-stage in silken cocoons, safe from weather and enemies; some undergo change in a case made of a variety of materials; others pass through transformation in a rolled-up leaf. Pupæ do not eat ; some have no power of motion whatever; others merely squirm when disturbed. When the transformation is complete, the shell is parted and the perfect insect comes forth. See Metamorphosis. Consult Cragin's Our Insect Friends.

Pu'ritans, the name first given — according to Fuller in 1564, according to Strype in 1569—to those clergymen of the church of England who refused to conform to its liturgy and discipline as arranged by Archbishop Parker and his coadjutors. During the reigns of James I and Charles I the spirit of Puritanism continued to spread in English society and in Parliament, in spite of all efforts by the government to suppress it. The tyranny of Laud and the outrages of Charles on the English constitution led many who strictly were not Puritans to oppose both church and king for the sake of the national liberties. Before the war between Charles and Parliament broke out a considerable number of the Puritans emigrated to America, where they became the founders of the New England states, and practiced the form of religion to which they were attached. For an eloquent description of the character and virtues of the Puritans see Macaulay's Essay on Milton. See, also, Pilgrims.

Pur'ple, Tyrian. See Phoenicia.

Pus'ey (pu'zt), Edward Bou'verie, a distinguished divine of the English church, was born at Pusey in Berkshire in 1800, and graduated with high honors at Oxford in 1822. In 1827 he was appointed professor of Hebrew at Oxford, a position he held until his death. Pusey, in connection with Keble and Newman, took a very active part in the Tractarian movement ; and, in 1843 was suspended from preaching for three years on account of a sermon on the Holy Eucharist. But he did not follow Newman into the Roman church, preferring to remain in the Anglican communion and exerting all his talents and learning to sus-

tain the evangelical doctrines and standards of life that were so dear to him ; and in spite of all difficulties in his way he continued his labors to this end until the close of his life. In private life Pusey was a man of warm affection, and was widely known for his gentleness, sincerity and humility. His charity was limited only by his income; besides abundant gifts to the poor, he spent large sums in helping to provide churches in East London and in founding and supporting sisterhoods. He died at Oxford, Sept. 16, 1882. Consult Life by Canon Liddon. See Keble, Manning and Newman.

Put'nam, Israel, a general of the American Revolution, was born in what now is Danvers, Mass., Jan. 7, 1718. In 1739 he bought a farm near Pomfret, Conn., and devoted himself to its cultivation and to wool-growing. During the years he was engaged in this occupation a she-wolf committed considerable ravages upon his sheep and those of the neighborhood, and all efforts to capture or kill her were in vain until Putnam entered her den in a rocky cavern with a torch in one hand and a gun in the other, and shot her before she had time to spring upon him. Putnam distinguished himself in the French and Indian War, and at the breaking out of the Revolutionary War was placed at the head of the Connecticut troops. He was active and conspicuous at Bunker Hill, soon after which he was commissioned major-general in the Continental army; and in 1777 he was appointed to the defense of the Hudson River highlands. While at Peekskill, a lieutenant in a British regiment was captured as a spy and condemned to death; and when Sir Henry Clinton sent a message under a flag of truce, threatening reprisals if the sentence should be carried out, Putnam returned the following famous answer: "Headquarters, Aug. 7, 1777. Edmund Palmer, an officer in the enemy's service, was taken as a spy lurking within our lines ; he has been tried as a spy, condemned as a spy and shall be hung as a spy, and the flag is ordered to depart immediately — Israel Putnam. P. S. He has accordingly been hung." In 1778 Putnam made his famous escape from Tryon's dragoons by riding down a steep declivity at Horseneck, Conn. The next year he suffered a stroke of paralysis, and the remainder of his life was spent at home. He died at Brooklyn, Conn., May 19, 1790.

Putnam, Rufus, cousin of Israel Putnam, was born at button, Mass., April 9, 1738, and served against the French from 1757 to 1760. In 1^78 he helped his cousin to fortify West Point, and had command of a regiment afterwards until the close of the war, being made brigadier-general in 1783. He helped to found Marietta, O., in 1788, was made a judge of the supreme court of the Northwest Territory in 1789,